BIBLE AND NATURAL SCIENCE
How did life begin on our planet?
By evolution or by creation?
For most people the answer is clear: evolution! We take it for granted that life has "evolved" from dead matter; from single-celled organisms to human beings throughout the course of billions of years. The ‘Theory of Evolution’ has become a set part of our thinking. As soon as we are confronted with a different way of thinking, e.g. the origin of life by creation, it is immediately perceived by us to be "illogical" or "unqualified".
However, there are a wealth of facts and incidents that are not consistent with the theory of evolution. Moreover, many scientific observations indicate that life originated through creation.
Let us start by examining a few of the methods used to support the theory of evolution and by comparing them to creation.
THE AGE OF THE EARTH
The advocates of evolution assume that life has developed over a very long period of time. For instance, they assume that the age of the earth is about 4.6 billion years and that the development of human beings began 4.5 million years ago. These periods of time that are difficult to imagine, are supposed to make improbable processes more probable. How can these millions and billions of years be accounted for?
1. The Leading-Fossil Method
A fossil is the petrification of plants, animals or animal skeletons (their remains are literally "turned to stone"). The theory of evolution states that the more primitive fossils would have to be older than the more elaborate ones. The fossil which occurs most often in a rock layer is called the 'Leading-Fossil' and the age of this rock layer is determined by the fossil's position within the theory of evolution.
The age of a rock layer is not determined through physical or chemical observation but rather, is based on the assumption that the theory of evolution is correct and by means of this ‘fact’ the age is determined. This is a classical circular argument that is not scientifically acceptable. Many elaborate fossils that should be younger have been found in very old rock strata.
2. Radioactive Dating-Methods
Here, the knowledge of radioactive decay and half-life is used. The half-life of a radioactive element is the time it takes for one half of the existing radioactive atoms to decay.
All dating methods such as Potassium-Argon, Uranium-Lead, and Carbon-14 use the same principle: Radioactive elements decay within a known period of time into other elements. Therefore, with knowledge of the half-life of the elements in a sample of rock, conclusions can be drawn about its age. Here is an analogy to show the unreliability of this method:
"If you watch a candle, you can measure how much it burns down within a certain period of time (e.g. 2 centimetres in 10 minutes). If you knew how big the candle was initially you will be able to work out when it was lit. But if not, you can only speculate. This is exactly what the evolutionists do. Without knowing the quantity of radioactive material initially in existence, they draw speculative conclusions about the point in time when a sample (e.g. a rock) came into being."
With the aforementioned methods of determining the age, further discrepancies appear. For example, with the Potassium-Argon method the following assumptions are made:
- That Argon (an inert gas) neither escapes from, nor enters a sample.
- That all existing Argon has originated from radioactive decay.
It is not a surprise to find that:
- A 200-year-old rock (originating from a volcanic eruption in Kilauea on Hawaii) was dated as being 22 million years old!
- The age of a rock in Hualalai, which had originated in 1801, was estimated to be between 160 million and 3 billion years old!
- A comparison of the 76 most common Age-Determination methods showed discrepancies ranging from 100 to 500,000,000 years!
The dating methods are in no way exact and cannot withstand a critical examination.
ORIGIN OF THE EARTH
You do not need millions of years to explain the existence of the universe, the earth and life, if they had their origin through an intelligent act of creation. There is much evidence to show that we do have a young universe and a young earth.
1. Erosion and the Age of Rivers
Considerable amounts of sediment are washed into the seas by the natural elements. The rate of erosion ranges from 6cm in desert terrain to 1.9m in the Himalayas over a thousand-year period. According to this, within 10 million years the world's entire land mass would have been eroded into the sea. In assuming that the current age of the earth is 4.6 billion years, the entire planet should be covered by water.
It is relatively easy to determine the age of a river which has a delta. The river carries large amounts of sediment (e.g. the Mississippi carries 267,483,000 cubic metres per annum). This sediment settles at the mouth of the river forming a delta. By measuring these deltas the resulting age ranges from 4 to 5 thousand years maximum. There are no rivers older than this.
2. Dissolved Minerals in the Ocean
Seawater contains many dissolved substances which enter the oceans from rivers, underwater volcanoes, and from terrestrial and cosmic dust. All solutions have a saturation point at which time no further material can be dissolved and the remaining minerals are deposited. In the oceans, the saturation point has not yet been reached, nor are there any traces of mineral deposits on the ocean floor. For example, the amount of sodium chloride (common table salt) in the oceans gives an age of the Earth at under thirteen thousand years.
3. Magnetic Field
Surrounding the earth is a magnetic field which protects us from dangerous cosmic rays. Evolutionist theories are not capable of explaining the rapid decline of strength and energy of the magnetic field. Since measurements began in 1829 the strength of the field has seen an exponential decline of 7%. Even though the strength and direction of the earth's magnetic field has altered several times, a steady decline in the field's energy can be substantiated by its own half-life of 700 years. By extrapolation and fundamental physical observations of the theoretical maximum strength of a magnetic field, the age of the earth's magnetic field can be determined to be no more than 10,000 years!
From the radioactive decay of Uranium 238 and Thorium 232 into Lead, Helium is created. The amount of Helium in the atmosphere is known. Assuming that all existing Helium was produced by radioactive decay, we can conclude that the earth must be about 10,000 years old. If Helium was created at the same time as the earth, then the earth would be even younger. If the earth is 4.6 billion years old, then where is all the Helium? It cannot have disappeared into space, because the gravitational pull of the earth is too strong.
These are just a few of the facts which question the assumption that the earth is billions of years old.
According to the theories of Charles Darwin and his followers, enough fossils must exist to prove, or at least to back up, the development of one species into another. These transitional forms are called 'Missing Links'.
The theory of evolution claims that birds evolved from reptiles and that Archaeopteryx is one of the links long sought for, but Archaeopteryx cannot be counted as a “missing link” because it was a true bird, with proper flight feathers and a typical avian bone structure.
Family Tree from APE to MAN
A closer look at some of these supposed common ancestors of mankind (which are taught as fact in schools the world over) uncovers much shocking deception:
Heidelberg man - Built from a jawbone that was conceded by many to be quite human!
Nebraska man - ‘Scientifically’ built up from one tooth which was later found to be the tooth of an extinct pig!
Peking man - Supposedly 500,000 years old. All evidence has disappeared!
Neanderthal man - Identified by Dr. A.J.Cave at the Zoological Congress (1958) as an old man suffering from arthritis!
Cro-Magnon man - One of the earliest and best fossils is at least equal in physique and brain capacity to modern man… so what’s the difference?
The Human Eye
Darwin himself realized that it seemed incredible that evolutionary processes had to explain human vision. He said: ‘To suppose that the eye with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest degree.’
Nature works in a particularly orderly manner using various micro-organisms to change dead creatures and plants into nutrition for other animals and into peat. In North America, for example, about 60 million bison were killed within 200 years (1700-1900). Today, just 100 years later, no remains are to be found.
Fossils are not formed as a direct result of the Eco-system. There are only two exceptional circumstances that allow fossil formation:
- Sinking into a swamp
- Disruption of the natural life cycle by catastrophes
There are in fact, many references to such catastrophes. Some examples are as follows:
- In California, in the Monterey Slate, there are about one billion fossilised herrings, 15-20 cm long, spread over an area of 10 square-kilometres.
- In New Mexico, a great number of dinosaur skeletons were uncovered on a mountain. All evidence shows that they died suddenly and at the same time.
- Our coal and oil reserves were formed by the immense accumulation of plant and animal remains.
All fossil discoveries indicate that:
- Death was instantaneous and there must have been an immediate withdrawal of air;
- Missing links do not exist. Only distinct species have ever been found.
The fossil-finds result in the conclusion that a huge, catastrophic, worldwide flood (the biblical flood) engulfed the earth.
DINOSAURS, MAMMOTHS AND THE COELACANTH
Dinosaurs are described very vividly in the Bible (see the description of the ‘behemoth’ in JOB 40 and the ’leviathan’ in JOB 41) with tails like cedar trees, ribs like bars of iron and fire coming out of their mouths. There are literally thousands of legends of dinosaurs meeting man and there are cave-paintings of dinosaurs in several locations world-wide. According to the theory of evolution, the dinosaurs must have become extinct about 60 million years prior to the existence of man!
In Siberia and Alaska a large number of mammoths were found in a frozen condition, some with flesh and fur partially intact. In Siberia alone more than 50,000 mammoth teeth were found.
On 22nd December 1938 a living Coelacanth, until then only known of as a fossil, was caught for the first time. This fish was supposed to have appeared on the scene over 350 million years ago and disappeared again together with the dinosaurs about 65 million years ago. Additionally, recent underwater photographs have shown this fish in its natural surroundings. A comparison of the fossils with living examples reveals that the fish has undergone no developments.
THE PHYSICAL LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
The Second Law of Thermodynamics states the following: ‘Any system, if left on its own, without any input of energy, will become increasingly disordered and chaotic. There must always be an intelligent and energetic input to create order and complexity out of disorder and chaos.’ Evolution contradicts this basic principle of physics. According to the theory of evolution, life emerged from chaos without controlled energy (intelligence) being added. Nevertheless, it is supposed to have achieved fantastic results:
- Nature - a complex biological equilibrium, that runs in harmony as long as man does not intervene.
- Our human body - with many thousands of, often still unknown, biochemical reactions which do not just happen by pure coincidence, but are instead precisely controlled.
- Our brain - the capacity of which still exceeds the largest and most efficient computers.
- Our genetic system / genome (genes) - contains all the information for the creation of a perfect new system: "Man"! The amount of information stored in 1/1000mm of our genes is equivalent to a book of 46 volumes, each with 20,000 pages.
The theory of evolution leaves many other things unexplained:
- why we have speech and are intelligent in comparison to animals?
- why feelings like love and hate exist?
- why man is in search of the meaning of life?
- that creatures exist without a Creator, and natural laws without a legislator?
Contrary to the theory of evolution, the scientifically elaborated laws of thermodynamics are confirmed by biblical creation records: The Bible describes the creation of the Earth and living creatures as a controlled active step by an intelligent being. God has excluded coincidence in creation through intelligent planning.
"For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse."ROMANS 1:20
The fact that 70 years here on earth can't be everything becomes clear to man when he is about to die. God does not leave you in the dark about how you were created and what your future will be.
"So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many; and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time without sin unto salvation."HEBREWS 9:28
Christ demands that you must take definite steps to be saved:
"Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost."ACTS 2:38
Repentance, baptism and receiving the Holy Spirit are the biblical conditions set by God for every person to obtain eternal life. Repentance stands for the inner return unto God, and turning away from your old life; baptism, by full immersion, symbolises the burying of your old sinful life.
When a person receives the gift of the Holy Spirit, they receive Christ and eternal salvation, evidenced by the sign of speaking in other tongues. See also ACTS 2:4.
These steps of obedience towards God's Word seal the act of being born again as described in the Bible. Never forget that one day you will stand before the throne of God to give an account of your life. Every moment of your life will be brought to your remembrance, and will be taken into account. God wants to redeem you, and calls on you to repent and to obey His Word.
Some books about the subject:
- - 'What About Origins?' by Dr. A.J. Monty White
- - 'The Genesis Flood' by John Whitcomb & Henry Morris
- - 'Man's Origin, Man's Destiny' by Dr. A.E. Wilder Smith
- - 'The Great Brain Robbery' by David C.C. Watson
- - 'The Answers Book' by Don Batten, Ken Ham, and Jonathan Sarfati