The Universe Is Young
It is generally assumed that the universe is billions of years old. Although these figures are not approved, they are widely accepted without question. These time periods are an essential ally to the evolution theory, which as everyone knows, depends on a long time span. These time spans are now being radically questioned in a book by an American scientist. His conclusion: the CREATION is very young.
Professor Harold Slusher studied mathematics and physics at the University of Tennessee, and physics and astronomy at the University of Oklahoma. He is now a professor of physics at the University of Texas and El Paso, and serves as a scientific fellow in geology and astronomy with the Institute for Creation Science in San Diego. In his book 'Age of the Cosmos', he writes about some amazing facts which have been generally unknown until now.
Gravity and Galaxies
Galaxies (milky ways) are not spread evenly throughout the universe, but form into groups. These groups could be held together by gravity, but the individual galaxies move apart from each other with the speed of many hundreds of kilometres per second. "This is why the groups are dispersed." The mass of the groups can be calculated with the help of various methods.
A minimum mass is necessary if gravity is to hold the group together. For example, one finds in the 'Coma-group' only a seventh of the mass necessary to hold the group together. The 'Virgo-group' has only a fiftieth of the necessary mass. It follows, therefore, that the groups should dissolve within a few million years. Since they are still in existence, their age could only be, at the most, one to two million years old. This is about three thousand times less than what has been assumed so far.
The Spiral Arms of the Galaxies
The inner stars in the spiral arms of a galaxy rotate faster than the outer parts. The nearer a star is to the centre, the faster it rotates around it. After one rotation of the outer stars, at the most, the spiral arms dissolve and form an even disc. The spiral arms should have dissolved after 200 to 1000 million years due to the speed of rotation, which has been measured. However, they are still in existence, which means they are younger.
Curved or Straight Space
If you look at the incredible distances of the universe, questions concerning the validity of the methods of measurement may arise. It is not certain as to whether the physical and geometric laws, which are valid here, also apply to the more remote stars out there. These questions particularly concern the outer limits of the universe, as there are galaxies which move away from us at two thirds of the speed of light. When we calculate the distance from us to these galaxies we arrive at a figure of twelve billion light years. Therefore, their light needs twelve billion years to reach us.
This calculation is only correct when we use Euclid's (straight line) system. However, if you assume, like Einstein, that the universe is curved, then you can use the Riemann system to calculate the time taken for light to travel. In spite of the large distance, it will take only 15.7 years to reach us. That also applies to galaxies whose distances are immeasurable.
Cosmic dust is sinking constantly from the universe onto the earth and the moon. Satellite measurements found that within one thousand years, a layer of three thousandths of a millimetre of dust rains down. When the astronauts landed on the moon's surface they found a layer of dust, which was approximately 3 millimetres thick. This, however, is approximately five thousand times less than it would be, if the earth was 'old'. Therefore the moon is a lot younger than previously assumed.
Comets are the strangest and the most puzzling appearances in the sky. All comets move around the sun. Some have been observed to take only three years to rotate around the sun, whereas there are others which require up to a million years. Comets, compared with the earth, are extremely small objects (up to 50 km in diameter). Their life span is limited because they lose material every time they move away from the sun. Indeed, it has been observed that some fully dissolve. Comets which orbit the sun in approximately 7 years only live for between four to ten thousand years. As they were created together with the planets, this would mean that they could only be, at best estimate, ten thousand years old. Slusher also proves that a spherical ring, with billions of comets (where the comets we can see could have originated from), cannot exist.
Meteor Swarms and the "Poynting-Robertson" Effect
Poynting and Robertson have calculated that a meteor grain which orbits around the sun, gets nearer and nearer to the sun until it finally evaporates on its surface. The smaller the grain is, the faster it moves closer to the sun. A meteor swarm contains different sizes of grains. Because of the Poynting-Robertson Effect the smaller grains approach the sun faster than the larger grains. In time, they sort themselves into order of size. With a radar, one can measure the extent of the separation, which enables us to calculate the age of the swarm. The age of the Gemini-Swarm was found to be ten thousand years. No separation could be measured with the remaining swarms because they are obviously too young.
Sporadic meteors probably originate from the time of the creation of the solar system. The planet Jupiter is very large and hits mainly the bigger meteors after a certain time. Oepik calculated that with the assumed age of the solar system, all meteors which are larger than two millimetres would have been absorbed by Jupiter. This would mean that - according to officially assumed time periods - no meteor which remains visible to the human eye, or telescope, should exist in the solar system any longer. The solar system must be younger, as about 100 million of these meteors still hit the earth daily.
Saturn and its Rings
Saturn's ring consists of thousands of narrow rings. During the last three hundred years the inner rings have been observed to move continuously closer to Saturn's surface. This allows an estimate of the life span of the rings to be made. One finds that this could be at most 500,000 years, but is likely to be a lot less. Since Saturn and the earth are of the same age, they also have to be a lot younger than assumed up until this present time.
Slusher comes to the conclusion that the interpretation of our measurements and calculations in the Universe lead us to observe that the Cosmos is very young. It is quite possible that it was created from six to ten thousand years before our present time.
by H. Stutz
Translated from the German: "Das Weltall ist jung"