Studies in Revelation

Quotations illustrating events in the history of the "Roman Earth" from the times of the Roman Empire down to the Twentieth Century.

References: O = 'The Outline of History' by H. G. Wells
  SH = 'A Short History of the World' by H. G. Wells
  EB = Encyclopaedia Britannica
  S = Sohm's, 'Outline of Church History'
  DOC = 'Documents of the Christian Church' by Henry Bettenson

O p. 498

Taxation 'By the second and third centuries A.D., the over-taxed and over-strained imperial machine was already staggering towards its downfall.

O p. 508

The Western Empire Collapses 'The first serious irruptions of the German tribes into the Roman Empire began in the third century, with the decay of the central power.'

O p. 512

Taxation 'Bloody insurrections repeatedly broke out, always traceable ultimately to the pressure of taxation ...'

O p. 516

Death of the Sea-ways 'The destruction (by the Vandals) of Carthage and Corinth had killed the shipping of the main Mediterranean sea-routes.'

O p. 519

"Caesar's" 'Ever since the time of Alexander, human thought has been haunted by the possible political unity of the race. ... Caesar had been such a king of kings. ... Theinternational history of Europe from this time henceforth is largely the story of kings and adventurers setting up to be Caesar and Imperator (Emperor). ... So universal did this "Caesaring" become, that the Great War of 1914-18 mowed down no fewer than four Caesar's; the German Kaiser (=Caesar), the Austrian Kaiser, the Tsar (=Caesar) of Russia, and that fantastic figure, the Tsar of Bulgaria. The French "Imperator" (Napoleon III) had already fallen in 1871.'

O p. 542

Persecutions 'Decius was the first emperor to organise an official persecution, and the great era of the martyrs was in the time of Diocletian (303 A.D. and following years). The persecution of Diocletian was, indeed, the crowning struggle of the old idea of the god-emperor against the already great and powerful organisation that denied his divinity. ... The test in the persecution was that the Christian was required to offer sacrifice to the emperor. Though Diocletian, still averse to the effusion of blood, had moderated the fury of Galerius, who proposed that everyone refusing to offer sacrifice should immediately be burnt alive ... it was enacted that their churches, in all the provinces of the empire, should be demolished to their foundations; and the punishment of death was denounced against all who should presume to hold any secret assemblies for the purpose of religious worship.'

S p. 13

Martyrs 'The number of the martyrs is greater than history has taken account of. In the case of Justin, that which more than all moved him to become a convert to Christianity was the courage, stronger than death, wherewith the followers of the Christian faith died for their opinions. To the heathen, death was the thing of all others most to be feared; to the Christian, death was gain. The moral power of Christianity was revealed to the heathen world before all in that heroic courage in dying; a courage which met death not with contempt, nor yet with stoical indifference, but with the sure and certain hope of victory. This was the faith that in its certain possession of heaven was mighty to overcome earth.'

S p. 15-18

Persecutions 'From this date (the middle of the third century) the pagan state began its systematic persecution of the Christians, over the whole extent of the empire, and formed against the Church an organised plan of attack which it carried out with all the means in its power. ... The attack was begun by the Emperor Decius (249-251). He gave orders for a general persecution of the Christians. The authorities all over the empire were to interfere against the whole body of the Christians, officially, that is, without waiting for any special charge against them, and compel them to sacrifice. A fearful time followed, which claimed countless martyrs. Even the death of Decius brought only temporary relief. Under his successor, Gallus (251-253), after two years of peace, fresh edicts were issued against the Christians in 253. But it was Valerian (253-260) who, more than all, took up the work of Decius after the year 257. In 258 he commanded that all bishops, priests, and deacons of the Church, together with all Christian senators and judges, should be condemned to death, if they refused to recant. ... Under Diocletian (284-305) the Roman kingdom rose up once more against the hated enemy ... it was the bitterest persecution which the Church had yet seen. It was a battle for life or death... The destruction at the Church of Nicomedia (on the 23rd of February, 303) gave the signal for the attack. The next day the imperial edict was published. All Christian officers were to retire from the army, and all Christian officials from their posts. All Christian churches were to be destroyed, and all the sacred books of the Christians confiscated and burned. It was instantly followed by a second edict commanding all clergy to be put in prison, in order to compel them to sacrifice. A third edict, issued in the year 304, commanded all Christians to sacrifice, and that under penalty of death. ... Smitten by an incurable disease, Diocletian resigned the imperial crown (305). Galerius, chief Augustus of the empire from the year 306, now pursued his own course unhindered in his Eastern Empire. ... It was an insane butchery. ... A tremendous tumult went through the length and breadth of the empire. ... After four long, melancholy, fearful years (306-310), Galerius, in sore sickness, recognised that he must draw back. On the 30th of April, while lying on his death-bed, he issued an edict of general toleration. He had to confess that the Christians had conquered.'

O p. 545

Constantine the Great 'In a few years Constantine the Great was reigning. ... In 312 A.D. Constantine had to fight for Rome and ... he put the Christian monogram upon the shields and banners of his troops, and claimed that the God of the Christians had fought for him in his complete victory. ... In a few year's time Christianity had become the official religion of the empire, and in A.D. 337 Constantine, upon his death-bed, was baptised a Christian.'

O p. 548

Official Christianity 'This date, A.D. 325 ... is the date of the first complete general ('ecumenical') council of the entire Christian world. ... It marks the definite entry upon the stage of human affairs of the Christian Church. ... It marks the exact definition of Christian teaching by the Nicene Creed. It is necessary that we should recall the reader's attention to the profound differences between this fully developed Christianity of Nicaea and the teaching of Jesus of Nazareth. ... What is clearly apparent is that the teaching of Jesus of Nazareth ... was not priestly, it had no consecrated temple, and no altar. It had no rites and ceremonies. Its sacrifice was 'a broken and a contrite heart'. ... But the fully fledged Christianity of the fourth century ... was mainly a priestly religion, of a type already familiar to the world for thousands of years. The centre of its elaborate ritual was an altar, and the essential act of worship was the sacrifice, by a consecrated priest, of the Mass.'

O p. 548-549

Official Christianity 'A very important thing for us to note is the role played by the emperor in the fixation of Christianity. Not only was the council of Nicaea assembled by Constantine the Great, but all the great councils, the two at Constantinople (381 and 553), Ephesus (431), and Chalcedon (451), were called together by the imperial power. And it is very manifest that in much of the history of Christianity at this time, the spirit of Constantine the Great is as evident as, or more evident than, the spirit of Jesus. He was, we have said, a pure autocrat. ... A second great autocrat, who presently contributed to the stamping upon Catholic Christianity of a distinctly authoritative character, was Theodosius I, Theodosius the Great (379-395). He forbade the unorthodox to hold meetings, handed over all churches to the Trinitarians, and overthrew the heathen temples throughout the empire ... and in 390 he caused the great statue of Serapes (Egyptian god of the underworld - worshipped in the form of a bull) at Alexandria to be destroyed. There was to be no rivalry, no qualification to the rigid unity of the church.'

S p. 44-45

Church and State 'In the year 313, Constantine, who with the comprehensive vision of a great statesman, had seen the requirements of his age, gave recognition and freedom to the church. He restored to her at the same time her worldly possessions, and protected her by numerous privileges. Paganism he left as yet untouched; it was after his time that it first met with persecution. He remained high priest ('pontifex maximus') of the pagan worship; notwithstanding that he embraced Christianity as a catechumen, receiving baptismal instruction, and was baptised in the year of his death, 337. ... In the course of the fifth century, Paganism had disappeared as an element of culture. The Empire had become Christian. The Church had conquered. She had been transformed from a secret society, proscribed and persecuted, into the mighty and supreme Church of the Empire, upheld by the power of the State.'

O p. 550

"Pontifex Maximus" 'With the final fall of the Western Empire, the pope took over the ancient title of 'pontifex maximus' which the emperors had held, and so became the supreme sacrificial priest of the Roman tradition.'

S p. 47-48

Church Modelled on the Empire 'The constitution of the Church was in the main modelled on the organisation of the Empire. The city (civitas) was the lowest political unit of the Empire. It became the lowest political unit of the Church, ... the Episcopal diocese. In the ... Empire, the province, ... stood above the civitas. The Episcopal dioceses were united in like manner under the direction of the metropolitan, the bishop of a provincial capital, forming an ecclesiastical province. ... Finally, the general union of the Churches corresponded to the general union of the Empire ...'

'To this day, the diocese of the Catholic bishop is the copy of the Roman civitas; the province of the Catholic archbishop the copy of the Roman imperial province; and the Catholic Church, under a Pope declared omnipotent by law, the copy of the ancient Roman Empire, with its Caesars, who claimed the world as their possession.'

O p. 551

City of God 'Ideas of worldly rule by the Church were already prevalent in the fourth century. Saint Augustine, ... who wrote between 354 and 430, ... in his book The City of God ... leads the mind very directly towards the possibility of making the world into a ... Kingdom of Heaven. ... The Church was to be the ruler of the world over all nations. ... As the barbarian races settled and became Christian, the pope began to claim an over-lordship of their kings. In a few centuries the pope had become ... the high priest, censor, judge, and divine monarch of Christendom; ... For more than a thousand years this idea of the unity of Christendom ... dominated Europe. The history of Europe from the fifth century onward to the fifteenth is very largely the history of the failure of this great idea of a divine world government to realise itself in practice.'

SH p. 168

Collapse of the Western Empire 'The Vandals from Carthage took and sacked Rome in 455. Finally, in 476, Odoacer, the chief of the barbarian troops, suppressed a Pannonian who was figuring as emperor under the impressive name of Romulus Augustulus, and informed the Court of Constantinople that there was no longer an emperor in the west. So ingloriously, the Latin Roman Empire came to an end. In 493, Theodoric the Goth became King of Rome.'

O p. 597

Birth of Mohammed 'It was in Mecca about the year A.D. 570 that Mohammed, the founder of Islam, was born.'

O p. 610

The Apostasy of the Eastern Empire (Battle of Yarmuk, 636 A.D.) 'A great parade of priests, sacred banners, pictures, and holy relics was made by the Byzantine host, and it was further sustained by the chanting of monks. But there was no magic in the relics and little conviction about the chanting. ... The battle ... became a massacre. The Byzantine army had fought with its back to the river, which was presently choked with its dead.'

SH p. 173

The Moslem Storm Cloud 'Byzantium and Persia had fought their last war (617). But few people as yet dreamt of the storm (Islam), that was even then gathering in the deserts to put an end forever to this aimless, chronic struggle.'

SH p. 178

Islam 'There follows the most amazing story of conquest in the whole history of our race.'

SH p. 180

Islam 'The conquest of all Persia followed, and the Moslem Empire pushed far into Western Turkestan ... Egypt fell ... The tide of conquest poured along the north coast of Africa to the Straits of Gibraltar and Spain. Spain was invaded in 710 and the Pyrenees mountains were reached in 720. In 732 the Arab advance had reached the centre of France ...'

O p. 623-4

The Seljuk Turks (1071) 'The next great event of unusual importance ... comes two hundred years later when the Turks, under the chiefs of the great family of the Seljuks, poured southward out of Turkestan. ... They caused a great revival of vigour in Islam, and they turned the minds of the Moslem world once more in the direction of a religious war against Christendom. ... It became only a bitter fanatical struggle again in the eleventh century.'

O p. 661-2

The Seljuk Turks 'The Seljuk Turks ... now swept down ... almost to the gates of Constantinople. ... The Turks utterly smashed the Byzantine army at the battle of Melasgird (1071).'

O p. 644

The concept of World Empire 'The Roman Church, clinging tenaciously to its possession of the title of 'pontifex maximus', ... was preoccupied with the revival of Roman ascendancy on earth, which it conceived of as its inheritance. It had become a political body, using the faith and needs of simple men to forward its schemes. It clung to the tradition of the Roman Empire and to the idea that it was the natural method of European unity. ...

For eleven centuries, from Charlemagne onwards, "Emperors" and "Caesars", of this line and that, come and go in the history of Europe like fancies in a disordered mind. ... Europe, during those eleven centuries of the imitation Caesars which began with Charlemagne, and which closed only in the monstrous bloodshed of 1914-18, has been like a busy factory owned ... by a corpse that magically simulates a kind of life. The Roman Empire staggers, sprawls, is thrust off the stage, and reappears, and - if we may carry the image one step further - it is the Church of Rome which plays the part of the magician and keeps this corpse alive.'

O p. 646

Pope crowns Charlemagne 'Then occurred a very important scene. On Christmas Day in the year 800, as Charles was rising from prayer in the Church of St. Peter, the pope, who had everything in readiness, clapped a crown upon his head and hailed him Caesar and Augustus. There was great popular applause.'

O p. 647

The Holy Roman Empire 'Thus the Empire of Rome, which had died at the hands of Odoacer in 476, rose again in 800 as the "Holy Roman Empire".'

O p. 663

The City of God 'The life of the Lateran changed in its quality with every occupant of the chair of St. Peter; sometimes papal Rome was a den of corruption and uncleanness, as it was in the days of John XII; sometimes it was pervaded by the influence of widely thinking and nobly thinking men. But behind the Pope was the assembly of the cardinals, priests, and a great number of highly educated officials, who never, even in the darkest and wildest days, lost sight altogether of the very grand idea of a divine world dominion, of a peace of Christ throughout the earth that St. Augustine had expressed. Through all the Middle Ages that idea was the guiding influence in Rome.'

S p. 92-95

The False Decretals 'But with the unity of the Empire fell the supremacy of the Emperor which Charles the Great had established over the Papacy, and, if the Church was to maintain its own unity, nothing else was left for it but to rely upon the authority of the pope. The knowledge of this truth led to the publication, about the middle of the ninth century, of the "Pseudo-Isidore'" the work of a Gaulish divine, the most shameless, yet the most successful forgery of the Middle Ages. An old collection of Papal Decretals and Canons of Councils was increased by the addition of a large number of forged Decretals, which the author of the collection put forward under the names of the ancient bishops of Rome, of the second and third centuries, for the most part. The ever-recurring idea of the forgeries is, first, the freedom of bishops from temporal authority, nay, more, if possible, from every kind of accusation - none of the laity, or of the inferior clergy, may lay a charge or appear as a witness against a bishop; secondly, the subjection of the Church to the Pope. ...

According to the "Pseudo-Isidore", the principle holds good universally, and that all more important causes are to be laid before the Pope, and that no decision of a provincial synod is valid, unless confirmed by him. ... The unity of the Church was to be saved in spite of the dissolution of the Empire. Hence, the extraordinary success of the forgery. In the year 864, Pope Nicolas I openly pronounced in favour of the principles laid down by the "Pseudo-Isidore". He even went so far as to guarantee officially, although in ambiguous language, that the false Decretals (which, however, he took care not to mention by name) had been preserved in the archives of the Roman Church, and thus made the Papacy an accomplice in the deceit. ... As early as the end of the ninth century, every objection against the genuineness of the false Decretals was silenced. They passed as genuine throughout the whole of the Middle Ages. They have been largely included in the "Corpus Juris Canonici". No earlier than the fifteenth century, Cardinal Nicolas of Casa expressed a doubt of their genuineness, which, by the investigations of the Protestants (the Magdeburg Centuriators and others), was raised to a certainty. ... The Papacy entered on the inheritance of Charles the Great. On his way to world-wide supremacy, the Bishop of Rome had only one more enemy to overcome - the German Emperor.'

O p. 671-2

The True Cross 'The custody of the True Cross,' says Gibbon, 'which on Easter Sunday was solemnly exposed to the people, was entrusted to the Bishop of Jerusalem, and he alone might gratify the curious devotion of the pilgrims by the gift of small pieces, which they encased in gold or gems, and carried away in triumph to their respective countries. But, as this gainful branch of commerce must soon have been annihilated, it was found convenient to suppose that the marvellous wood possessed a secret power of vegetation, and that its substance, though continually diminished, still remained entire and unimpaired.'

O p. 680

Persecutions 'Closely associated with the Albigenses were the Waldenses, the followers of a man called Waldo, who seems to have been quite soundly Catholic in his theology, but equally offensive to the Church because he denounced the riches and luxury of the clergy. This was enough for the Lateran, and so we have the spectacle of Innocent III preaching a crusade against these unfortunate sectaries, and permitting the enlistment of every wandering scoundrel at loose ends to carry fire and sword and rape and every conceivable outrage among the most peaceful subjects of the King of France.

The accounts of the cruelties and abominations of this crusade are far more terrible to read than any account of Christian martyrdom's by the pagans, and they have the added horror of being indisputably true. This black and pitiless intolerance was an evil spirit to be mixed into the project of a rule of God on earth. ... The popes, during their centuries of power, were always raging against the slightest reflection upon the intellectual sufficiency of the church.'

EB Vol.17 p. 206

Gregory VII (1073-85) 'The position of the pope as the supreme leader of the whole of Christendom was summed up in Gregory VII's pithily formulated 27 "sentences", the "Dictatus papae" (1075): all matters affecting the well-being of the Christian commonwealth are to be finally decided by the pope, who himself cannot be judged by anyone ('papa a nemine judicatur'). A council is ecumenical (i.e. universal) only if the pope has summoned it, or authorised its decrees. The pope alone may wear the imperial emblems and alone has the right to demand the 'osculatio pedum' (kissing of the feet); he may depose kings and emperors and princes and create new kingdoms; he alone is the universal bishop; and so forth.

Doc p. 149

Gregory VII 'Ye should know, brethren, that we have mentioned all this to show that nothing can be found in this world more lofty than priests or more sublime than bishops. Furthermore, every Christian kind, when he comes to die, seeks as a pitiful suppliant the aid of a priest, that he may escape hell's prison, may pass from the darkness into the light, and at the judgement of God may appear absolved from the bondage of his sins. Who, in his last hour (what layman, not to speak of priests), has ever implored the aid of an earthly king for the salvation of his soul?

And what king or emperor is able, by reason of the office he holds, to rescue a Christian from the power of the devil through holy baptism, to number him among the sons of God, and to fortify him with the divine unction? Who of them can by his own words make the body and blood of our Lord - the greatest act in the Christian religion? Or who of them possesses the power of binding and loosing in heaven and on earth? From all of these considerations it is clear how greatly the priestly office excels in power.'

O p. 681

Indulgences 'Her (the church) crowning folly in the sixteenth century was the sale of indulgences, whereby the sufferings of the soul in purgatory could be commuted for a money payment. But the spirit that led at last to this shameless and, as it proved, disastrous proceeding was already very evident in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.'

S p. 161-162

Indulgences 'The outward circumstance which called forth the action of Luther was the system of indulgences established by the Medieval Church. Indulgence was originally a remission of the punishment inflicted by the Church. The Church's power to grant indulgences was afterwards extended to the temporal punishment of sins generally, and so to the temporal punishment which, according to the medieval doctrine, was to be suffered in the other world in purgatory. Indulgence was granted in return for the performance of a good work. The pope had the right to grant a general indulgence for the performance of certain specified works. ... The idea was that, in granting indulgences, the Church offered, out of the treasure of superfluous good works ('treasaurus supererogationis') which it possessed through the merits of Christ and the Saints, satisfaction to God in place of the penalty which the receiver of the indulgence would have had to pay.

In the year 1517, Pope Leo X issued a general indulgence to the whole of Christendom. The money paid for it was to be used for the completion of the Church of St. Peter's in Rome. Archbishop Albert of Mainz and Magdeburg was the Pope's agent for the sale of indulgences in one part of the German Empire. The half of the money collected in his dioceses fell to his share, in order that he might pay back to the house of Fugger the debt of thirty thousand gulden which he had had to borrow for the cost of his pallium. So those who sold indulgences on behalf of the Archbishop were accompanied by the agents of the house of Fugger, who took for themselves the half of the money as it was collected. The sale of indulgences assumed more and more the character of a traffic.'

O p. 682

Persecutions 'A very different character to St. Francis was the Spaniard, St. Dominic (1170-1221), who was, of all things, orthodox. He had a passion for the argumentative conversion of heretics, and he was commissioned by Pope Innocent III to go and preach to the Albigenses. His work went on, side by side, with the fighting and massacres of the Crusades: whom Dominic could not convert, Innocent's crusaders slew ...'

O p. 683

Persecutions 'The thirteenth century saw the development of a new institution in the church, the papal Inquisition. ... and with fire and torment the church set itself, through this instrument, to assail and weaken the human conscience in which its sole hope of world dominion resided. ... Now in a hundred market-places in Europe the dignitaries of the church watched the blackened bodies of its antagonists, ... burn and sink pitifully, and their own great mission to mankind burn and sink with them into dust and ashes.'

S p. 125

The Papacy's Highest Summit 'In the very beginning of the thirteenth century, Pope Innocent III (1198-1216), who disposed of the thrones of Germany, of England, and of Aragon, and who, as the 'Vicar of Christ and God', had raised the temporal supremacy of the Papacy to its highest summit, delivered the oracular sentence: "The Lord has given not only the whole Church, but the whole world, to Saint Peter to govern."

S p. 139

The Pope is Antichrist 'Already the Englishman, Wycliffe (died 1384), under the pressure of the great schism and of the utter corruption of the Papacy and the clergy, had declared the Pope to be Antichrist; rejected the Church's claims to power over the State; proclaimed war against the Mendicant friars; and enthroned the Bible as the only pure source of God's Word, and the only rule of ecclesiastical doctrine. Already John Huss, his zeal kindled by the writings of Wycliffe, had attacked the principle of the infallibility of Papal decrees and the power of indulgences. As with the mighty Wycliffe, so was it with Huss, Wycliffe's true follower till death. His nation stood by him, and at the fire of the stake, at which, by the judgement of the Council of Constance, Huss perished as a heretic (1415), was kindled the great insurrection of Bohemia.'

O p. 687/8

The Great Schism 'The split is called the Great Schism. The Popes remained in Rome ... the anti-Popes ... continued in Avignon. ... Each Pope excommunicated and cursed the adherents of his rival, so that by one standard or another all Christendom was dammed soundly and completely during this time (1378-1417)! The lamentable effect of this split upon the solidarity of Christendom is impossible to exaggerate. Is it any marvel that such men as Wycliffe began to teach men to think on their own account, when the fountain of truth thus squirted against itself? ... Later on, the Council of Basel (1439) led to a fresh schism, and to further anti-Popes.'

O p. 735

Wycliffe 'We have already mentioned the career of the Englishman Wycliffe (c.1320-1384), and how he translated the Bible into English in order to set up a counter-authority to that of the Pope.'

O p. 736

Huss '[At] the Council of Constance (1414-1418) ... Wycliffe's bones were condemned to be burnt. Huss was decoyed to Constance under promise of a safe conduct, and he was then put upon his trial for heresy. ... In spite of the emperor's promise of safe conduct, he was burnt alive (1415) ...'

O p. 737

Persecutions 'These outrages were followed by an insurrection of the Hussites in Bohemia (1419); the first of a series of religious wars that marked the breaking-up of Christendom. In 1420 the Pope, Martin V, issued a bull proclaiming a crusade "for the destruction of the Wycliffites, Hussites, and all other heretics in Bohemia," and, attracted by this invitation, the unemployed soldiers of fortune and all the drifting black-guardism of Europe converged upon that valiant country.'

O p. 743

Printing and Paper 'The development of free discussion in Europe during this age of fermentation was enormously stimulated by the appearance of printed books. ... In Haarlem, one Coster was printing from movable type somewhere before 1446. Gutenberg was printing at Mainz about the same time. ... Far more important is the question of the manufacture of paper. It is scarcely too much to say that paper made the revival of Europe possible. Paper originated in China, where its use probably goes back to the second century B.C. ... Only by the fourteenth century did the manufacture reach Germany, and not until the end of that century was it abundant and cheap enough for the printing of books to be a practicable business proposition.'

O p. 744

Printing of Bibles 'One immediate result of this achievement of printing was the appearance of an abundance of Bibles in the world.'

O p. 746

The Reformation 'As England, Scotland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, North Germany, and Bohemia broke away from the Roman communion, ... just as much reformation as would sever the link with Rome they permitted; ... The Established Church of England is one of the most typical and successful of the resulting compromises.'

O p. 746

The Bible 'The general drift of the common man in this period in Europe was to set up his new acquisition, the Bible, as a counter-authority to the church.'

O p. 747

Non-conformists 'All over Europe, wherever the new Protestant churches of the princes were set up, a living and very active residuum of Protestants remained who declined to have their religion made over for them in this fashion. These were the Nonconformists, a medley of sects, having nothing in common but their resistance to authoritative religion, whether of the Pope or the State. In Germany, Nonconformity was for the most part stamped out by the princes; in Great Britain it remained powerful and various. Much of the differences in the behaviour of the German and British peoples seems to be traceable to the relative suppression of free judgement in Germany.'

O p. 787

Luther 'He (Charles V) summoned an assembly or "diet" of the empire at Worms on the Rhine. To this, Luther, who had been asked to recant his views by Pope Leo X, and who had refused to do so, was summoned. He came, and, entirely in the spirit of Huss, refused to recant unless he was convinced of his error by logical argument, or by the authority of Scripture. ... But his protectors among the princes were too powerful for him to suffer the same fate as John Huss.'

O p. 894

French Revolution 'And the whole vast property of the church was seized and administered by the State ...'

O p. 929

Napoleon & Pope Pius VII 'His coronation was the most extraordinary revival that is possible to imagine. Caesar was no longer the model; Napoleon was now Charlemagne. He was crowned emperor, not indeed at Rome, but in the cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris. The Pope (Pius VII) had been brought from Rome to perform the ceremony, and at the climax Napoleon I seized the crown, waved the Pope aside, and crowned himself. ... In 1807 he began to bully the Pope, and in 1811 he made him a close prisoner at Fontainebleau.'

O p. 930

Trafalgar ' October Nelson destroyed the joint fleets of France and Spain at the Battle of Trafalgar. Nelson died splendidly upon the Victory, victorious. Thereafter, Napoleon was left with Britain in pitiless opposition, unattainable and unconquerable, able to strike here or there against him along all the coasts of Europe. For some years the mortal wound of Trafalgar was hidden from the French mind altogether. They heard merely that "storms have caused us to lose some ships of the line after an impudent fight".'

O p. 945

Revived Roman Empire? 'The Napoleonic attempt to restore the Roman Empire was reflected with extreme fidelity in the architecture, dress, furniture, and painting of the period. In all these things there was an attempt to revive the actual forms and spirit of Imperial Rome. Women's head-dresses and costumes seemed to have flitted out of the museums into the streets; the colonnade, the triumphal arch, swaggered back to the commanding positions of all the great cities. Paris gained her "Arc de Triomphe", and London, duly imitative, her "Marble Arch".'

EB Vol 12 p. 785

Pope Loses Temporal Power 'On Sept. 20, 1870, Gen. Raffaele Cadorna forced a breach in the Porta Pia; and after a token resistance, Pope Pius IX accepted what he had not the force to withstand. ... First in importance was now the problem of trying to reconcile the Vatican to the loss of temporal power and to the existence of a secular and even anti-clerical government in the Holy City itself.

O p. 961

The Fermentation of Ideas (1848-1914) 'But after 1848, from 1848 to 1914, though the readjustment of the map still went on towards a free and unified Italy and a unified Germany ... came a great irruption of new social, religious, and political ideas into the general European mind. In the next three sections we will consider the origin and quality of these irruptions. They laid the foundations from which we base our political thought today.'

O Sec.4, p. 962

The development of the Idea of Socialism.

O Sec.5, p. 969

How Darwinism Affected Religious and Political Ideas.

O Sec.6, p. 976

The Idea of Nationalism.

S p. 233-234

Infallibility 'In 1864, the Bill of Errors ('Syllabus Errorum') was published, which condemns the modern State and modern liberty of faith and conscience. The decisive event which marked the victory of Ultra-montanism was the proclamation by the Vatican Council (1870) of the infallibility of the pope; of old the favourite dogma of the Jesuits. The "dogma of infallibility" means that the dogmatic decision of the pope, as pope, even without the consent of a general council, is binding on the whole Church; once the pope has delivered "judgement ex cathedra", that is, with the distinct view of instructing all Christendom on a question of belief or of morals.

This dogma implies an endless series of propositions in which the infallibility of the pope is maintained to be not only valid for the future, but to be an original part of the Christian creed throughout the past also. According to the doctrine formulated by the Vatican, all the Popes have been infallible, from the Apostle Peter (whom the Catholics hold to be the first of the line), down to the present day. Thus, for instance, Pope Boniface VIII was infallible also, when in the year 1302 he issued his Bull, "Unam Sanctum", which proclaimed to all Christendom the subordination of the temporal to the spiritual authority.'

O p. 1144

The Spanish Tragedy 'Spain had been preparing for a liberal revolution for the better part of a century. So far we have told little of her experiences after the downfall of Napoleon. It is a story of decadence and humiliation, of nation-wide ignorance, mis-education and incompetence under the domination of the Roman Catholic Church.'

O p. 1146

Spain 'There was a revolt in Barcelona, and the people, with a very clear appreciation of the source of their troubles, burnt convents and churches. The congregations, they knew, paid no taxes; the churches were the symbols of a crushing suppression of thought, and it was natural that they should be taken to symbolise the national decadence. ... The country had been bled white by the church and the grandees; it was two hundred years behind the times.'


Appendix A - Simplified Outline of History: Roman Times to Modern Europe.

Appendix B - Revelation Chapter 6

Appendix C - Revelation Chapter 16

Appendix D - The Twelve Tribes of Israel Today (Summary to date)

Appendix E - Daniel's Image

Appendix F - Appendix to Daniel's Image

Appendix G - Outline of History - Charlemagne becomes Emperor of the West.

Appendix A

Simplified Outline of History: Roman Times to Modern Europe

117 A.D. Roman Empire at zenith. Trojan emperor.
303 A.D. Severe persecution of Christians by Diocletian.
395 A.D. Division of Empire. Western based on Rome; Eastern based on Constantinople.
c.400 A.D. Paganism overthrown. 'Christianity' becomes official religion of state.
476 A.D. Barbarians sack Rome. Collapse of Western Roman Empire.
600's Rise of Moslem power. Zenith c.750 A.D. Gradual rise of Papacy from this time.
800 A.D. Charlemagne crowned by Pope Leo III, as Emperor of the West. Start of the "Holy Roman Empire".
1071 A.D. Rise of Seljuk Turks, who overran the Eastern Empire.
1000-1200's Crusades to deliver Jerusalem.
1215 A.D. European unity set up under the absolute authority of the Pope, after the model of the imperial Roman system. A Byzantine writer remarked that Pope Innocent III had become the successor of Caesar, rather than of St. Peter.
1378-1417 A.D. The Triple Schism. Three popes all excommunicating each other.
1446 A.D. Printing invented. Bibles available in common tongues.
1453 A.D. Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Turks.
1400's-1500's Reformation.
1600's-1700's Many wars in Europe.
1762 A.D. Treaty of Paris. This deprived France of Canada and set the seal to British supremacy on the seas and in America.
1789 A.D. The French Revolution, followed by Napoleonic Wars.
1798 A.D. Pope taken prisoner by Napoleon. Rome sacked.
1806 A.D. "Holy Roman Empire" came to end when Francis II of Austria dropped the title of 'Holy Roman Emperor'.
1861 A.D. Victor Emmanuel became king of Italy. Papal states lost to church of Rome by 1870.
1914-18 Great War. Turkish Empire 'dries up'.
1939-45 Second World War. Ancient 'Roman earth' divided into three parts. West, East and Moslem states.


Appendix B

Revelation Chapter 6

Seal 1: Peace

Encyclopaedia of America (1984), 23-723:

"The Empire's Golden Age: 69-180 A.D."

Emperors: Vespasian 69-79 A.D. Colosseum began.

Titus 79-81

Domitian 81-96 Pantheon restored. Arch of Titus (called himself

"Lord God").

Nerva 96-98

Trajan 98-117 Built Forum of Trajan.

Hadrian 117-138 "The empire had never been more prosperous."

Antoninus Pius 138-161

Marcus Aurelius 161-180

(Commodus 180-192 A.D.)


"If a man were called to fix the period of history of the world, during which the condition of the human race was most happy and prosperous, he would, without hesitation, name that which elapsed from the death of Domitian (96 A.D.) to the accession of Commodus (180 A.D.)."

Seal 2: Civil War

See "Rulers of Roman Empire".

180-284 A.D. Commodus (180-192) executed relatives after an attempted coup (182 A.D.). Assassinated 192 A.D.

Pertimax (193) - assassinated after 2 months.

Didius Julianus (193) - assassinated.

Caracalla (211-217) - assassinated.

Macrinus (217-218) - assassinated.

Heliogabalus (218-222) - assassinated.

etc. etc.

"Between 268 and 284 A.D. only one emperor died of natural causes, the remainder were assassinated."

"The emperors were repeatedly called upon to suppress their own rebellious troops."

Seal 3: Huge taxes

200-250 A.D. "As defence costs rose, the Roman treasury had been pushed closer to bankruptcy. And when increases in tax rates did not produce additional revenues - the emperors resorted to the debasement of the coinage to meet state expenses. ... The small farmer was driven closer to serfdom by the government's insatiable need for revenue."

Seal 4: Death and Famine

250-300 A.D. "...From 260 A.D., for the next eight years, crisis followed crisis. The Alamanni seized most of southern Germany and invaded Italy; the Goths attacked Athens; the plague that had swept through the East reached Italy."

Seal 5: Severe persecution against Christians

"In A.D. 50, Decius issued an edict requiring all the inhabitants of the empire to sacrifice to the gods. This measure had the effect of forcing Christians to choose apostasy or death. Many became martyrs."

"Valerian issued edicts in 257 A.D. authorising the death penalty for those Christians who continued to practice their faith in public. A substantial number of Christians, including some senators, were executed."

"Diocletian launched a brutal persecution of Christianity. He ordered (in 303 A.D.) the destruction of Christian churches and scripture, the imprisonment of the clergy; and mandatory sacrifice to the state gods on penalty of death. This persecution was the most intense the Roman world had ever witnessed."

Seal 6: Political upheaval in the Roman World

Appendix C

Revelation Chapter 16


The Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day, 24th August, 1572.

The Cross and the Crown', by James D. McCabe, p.239-240: "At Orleans, Bordeaux, Troyes, Meaux, Rouen and other places, blood flowed freely. No mercy was shown the unhappy Huguenots. They were shot down, or hacked to pieces, or beaten to death, or burned. In Lyons alone, 4000 people were killed. ... In all the kingdom there was mourning and suffering. The Duke of Sully says that 70,000 Huguenots were slain during the massacre."

"Catherine (Mother of King Charles IX) also wrote to the Pope (Gregory XIII), informing him of the massacre. The news created the most profound excitement in Rome. (Catherine and the Jesuits had planned the massacre)."


'The Revelation Unveiled' by A. J. Ferris, p.137: "It is estimated by historians that in five years (in Papal Europe from 1789), 2,000,000 people were roasted alive, drowned, guillotined, or shot; that 24,000 priests were murdered, and 40,000 churches turned into stables."


'The Outline of History' by H. G. Wells, p.930: " October, Nelson destroyed the combined fleets of France and Spain ... thereafter Napoleon was left with Britain ... able to strike here and there against him, along all the coasts of Europe."


'The Outline of History' by H. G. Wells, p.911: "The propagandist zeal of the (French) Revolution carried the French armies into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, south Germany, and northern Italy. Everywhere kings were expelled and republics set up."


'The Outline of History' by H. G. Wells, p.928: "In 1802 he (Napoleon) got himself made 'First Consul' for life, with the power of appointing a successor." (The Roman Empire had Consuls)."


"His (Napoleon's) coronation was the most extraordinary revival that it is possible to imagine. Caesar was no longer the model; Napoleon was now Charlemagne (First Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, 800 A.D.). He was crowned Emperor, not indeed in Rome, but in the cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris; the Pope (Pius VII), had been brought from Rome to perform the ceremony; and at the climax, Napoleon waived the Pope aside, and crowned himself. In 1806, Napoleon still following the footsteps of Charlemagne, crowned himself with the iron crown of Lombardy, in the cathedral of Milan."


'Documents of the Christian Church' by Bettenson, p.382:

"The Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception (of Mary)" - Pope Pius XI, 1854: "...We, with the authority of our Lord Jesus Christ, the blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, and with our own, do declare, pronounce and define that the doctrine which holds that the Virgin Mary was, in the first instance of her conception, preserved untouched by any taint of original guilt, and that this doctrine was revealed by God, and therefore is to be firmly and steadfastly believed by all the faithful."


p.384: "The Doctrine of Papal Infallibility", 1870: Vatican Council Session IV:

"We (Pope Pius IX) ... teach and define as a dogma divinely revealed, that the Roman Pontiff, when he speaks "ex cathedra" ... is endowed with infallibility ... in defining doctrine concerning faith and morals. ... If any contradict our definition, let him be anathema (cursed of God, cursed of the Church, excommunicated)." - This decree aroused much opposition, and Bishop Dollinger of Munich refused to submit and was excommunicated.


"The Doctrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary", 1950:

Pope Pius XII: "Therefore we ... declare and define, as a dogma revealed by God, that the Immaculate Mother of God, ever-Virgin Mary, on the completion of the course of her earthly life, has been taken up, body and soul, to the glory of heaven ... to reign there as Queen at the right hand of her Son, the immortal King of the ages..."


Appendix D

The Twelve Tribes of Israel Today

- Summary to Date

God has a plan to bring Man back to Him. The foundation of the plan is laid in the book of Genesis (the Beginnings). God promises Abraham's descendants (twelve-tribed Israel) will become a company of nations and a great nation.

The Jews of today, and of Christ's day, represent only a small part of the original twelve-tribed nation. Through Moses, God foretells that He will punish Israel for disobedience and this will be for seven "times". The known history of the Jews helps us determine how long seven "times" is to be.

In 604 B.C. the House of Judah's (later the Jews) punishment begins when the King of Babylon exercises dominion over Jerusalem. Gentile dominion then continues until the Turk is driven out of Jerusalem in 1917 A.D. That is a period of 2511 years.

GENESIS 48:14-20 tells us that Abraham's great-great grandsons, Ephraim and Manasseh, are to become a "company of nations" and a "great people". This did not happen in the Old Testament. Rather they, like the House of Judah, were punished for disobedience. The Bible records the seven "times" punishment commencing earlier for Manasseh (741 B.C.) and Ephraim (721 B.C.) than for the House of Judah.

If we add 2520 years to these dates we obtain interesting results. In the case of Manasseh, 741 B.C. + 2520 years = 1780 A.D. - the mid-date of the U.S. War of Independence, which was followed by the emergence of 'a great people', the U.S.A.

Adding 2520 years to 721 B.C. gives us the date 1800 A.D., when the United Kingdom was

formed, followed by the rapid development of the British Empire, which became the 'Commonwealth of Nations'.

We noted also that the prophecy in GENESIS 49:24 promised victory in warfare to Ephraim and Manasseh (Joseph's sons) and that British Empire Forces were used to free Jerusalem in 1917, in readiness for the return of the Jews.

We are suggesting then, that the British Commonwealth and the U.S.A. are descendants of the 'lost' Ten Tribes of Israel, and that they constitute the promised 'company of nations' and 'great people' of Genesis.

There are many other Bible prophecies relating to the descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and it can be shown that they also are fulfilled as above.

Our next study is of DANIEL, Chapter 2, where we will find amazing confirmation of the foregoing.

Appendix E

Daniel's Image

Introduction: MATTHEW 24:15-16 Jesus gives His authority to Daniel's prophecies.

DANIEL 2:31-48

Note the interpretations:

(a) A succession of kingdoms or empires.

(b) God sets up a "stone kingdom" which destroys the Babylonian succession of world powers.

(c) The stone kingdom fills the earth and stands forever.


(a) Identify the succession of world powers:

(See Category A2 sheet 'Sketch of Daniel 7')

1. Babylon 604 - 539 B.C.

2. Medo-Persia 539 - 331 B.C.

3. Greece 339 - 300 B.C.

4. Rome 200 B.C. - 495 A.D. - breaks down to Europe of today.

(b) Slides showing the 'Company of Nations' victorious in warfare, resulting in the destruction of the Babylonian world powers.

(c) Identification of Papacy with Babylon through the symbol of the lion of Babylon.

(d) Identification of British Throne with the "stone kingdom" through the Coronation Stone - the Stone of Jacob.

Conclusion: Daniel's interpretation of King Nebuchadnezzer's dream fits the development of the now historical world empires like a glove fits the hand. The role of the British Empire (now Commonwealth) also fits that of the "stone kingdom", as no other world power does. Therefore the Stone Kingdom of Daniel, the House of Jacob, and the Kingdom of Jesus Christ are one and the same.


1. Comparison of scriptures, re. the "stone kingdom" and the House of Jacob.

2. Prophecies of God using the House of Jacob to destroy Gentile world powers.

Appendix F

Appendix to Daniel's Image

1. The "Stone kingdom" stands for ever (DANIEL 2:34-35,44).

Jesus reigns over the House of Jacob for ever and of His kingdom there shall be no end (LUKE 1:33).

Therefore the stone kingdom, the House of Jacob and the kingdom of Christ are identical.

2. God to use the House of Jacob to destroy nations and kingdoms:

GENESIS 48:19:

"Joseph (Ephraim - 'a company of nations' and Manasseh - 'a great nation') is a fruitful bough ... the archers have shot at him ... but his bow abode in strength ... made strong by ... the mighty God of Jacob."

ISAIAH 41:15-16:

"Behold, I will make you (Jacob / Israel) into a new sharp threshing instrument having teeth; thou shall thresh the mountains (kingdoms / empires) and beat them small, and make the hills (nations) like chaff. You shall winnow them, the wind shall carry them away..."


"Thou (Jacob / Israel) art my battle-axe and weapons of war; for with thee I will break in pieces the nations, and with thee will I destroy kingdoms."

DANIEL 2:44:

"And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom ... it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms and it shall stand for ever." (See also DANIEL 2:34-35).

MATTHEW 21:44:

(Jesus said) "And whosoever shall fall on this stone (kingdom of God) shall be broken: but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder."

Appendix G

The Outline of History (by H. G. Wells), p.644

§ 5. Charlemagne becomes Emperor of the West.

Through Charlemagne, the tradition of the Roman Caesar was revived in Europe. The Roman Empire was dead and decaying; the Byzantine Empire was far gone in decline; but the education and mentality of Europe had sunken to a level at which new creative political ideas were probably impossible. In all Europe there survived not a tithe of the speculative vigour that we find in the Athenian literature of the fifth century B.C. There was no power to postulate a new occasion or to conceive and organise a novel political method.

Official Christianity had long overlaid and accustomed itself to ignore those strange teachings of Jesus of Nazareth from which it had arisen. The Roman Church, clinging tenaciously to its possession of the title of "pontifex maximus", had long since abandoned its appointed task of achieving the Kingdom of Heaven. It was preoccupied with the revival of Roman ascendancy on earth, which it conceived of as its inheritance. It had become a political body, using the faith and needs of simple men to forward its schemes. It clung to the tradition of the Roman Empire and to the idea that it was the natural method of European unity. Europe, in a series of attempts to restore it, drifted towards a dreary imitation and revival of the misconceived failures of the past.

For eleven centuries, from Charlemagne onwards, "Emperors" and "Caesars", of this line and that, come and go in the history of Europe like fancies in a disordered mind. We shall have to tell of a great process of mental growth in Europe, of enlarged horizons and accumulating power, but it was a process that went on independently of, and in spite of, the political forms of the time, until at last it shattered those forms altogether. Europe, during those eleven centuries of the imitation Caesars, which began with Charlemagne, and which closed only in the monstrous bloodshed of 1914-1918, has been like a busy factory owned by a somnambulist, who is sometimes quite unimportant and sometimes disastrous in way. Or, rather than a somnambulist, let us say by a corpse that magically simulates a kind of life. The Roman Empire staggers, sprawls, is thrust off the stage, and reappears, and - if we may carry the image one step further - it is the Church of Rome which plays the part of the magician and keeps this corpse alive.

Source: Revival Centres of Australia