The Role of English Speaking Peoples
“What is all our histories, but God showing Himself, shaking and trampling on everything that He has not planted” (Oliver Cromwell). 1
The reader with an eye for history would see that certain nations over the years, more than others, have been instrumental in civilising and improving conditions, morals and ways of living across the earth. The Bible says:
“… whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report; if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things” (PHILIPPIANS 4:8). God clearly wants people to live in a civilised way and He has used His people to bring advancements to the nations.
The pages of history tell the story of the Israelite nations – Great Britain and the Commonwealth, America and Canada - not only bringing freedom to the world and being used of God to deliver other nations from oppression and tyranny, but also being divinely assisted and defended by God in this purpose.
The first question that arises is – how did the people of Israel end up in the British Isles?
How Did the Descendants of Ancient Israel Come to the British Isles?
“Thus saith the LORD, which giveth the sun for a light by day, and the ordinances of the moon and of the stars for a light by night… If those ordinances depart from before me, saith the LORD, then the seed of Israel also shall cease from being a nation before me for ever” (JEREMIAH 31:35-36).
According to biblical and archaeological evidence, the 12 tribes of Israel formed a kingdom in the ancient Middle-East about three thousand years ago, under their mighty kings; Saul, David and Solomon.
Political discord arose, and ten of the tribes split from the House of David and formed their own kingdom called “Israel”, while the two tribes of Judah and Benjamin remained faithful to the Davidic line of kings, forming a kingdom called “Judah” (See 1 KINGS 12:16-19).
The ten tribes to the north were soon attacked and taken captive by the world power of the day, the Assyrians, and removed to the fringes of the Assyrian empire, namely northern Mesopotamia, Armenia and modern-day Iran between 740-720 BC (See 2 KINGS 17:6). 2
Certain sections of the exiled Israelites quickly regrouped in their tribal formations and clans forming new ethnic entities, thus losing the knowledge of their real identity. The Assyrians called them “Bith-Khumree” (House of Omri) 3; and the Persians named them “Sakae” 4 (Sons of Isaac); the Greeks subsequently named them “Cimmerians” and “Scythians”. 5
Many of the ancient tribal names still live on till today: the Welsh call themselves “Cymry”; the English were formed by the tribes of the Angles, Saxons (Isaac’s sons / Sakae) and Jutes (portion of Judah) 6; the Scots resemble the Scythians; the Danes come from Dan; the Gothic warriors bear the name of Gad.
The groups of dispersed Israelites wandered at different times and in different tribal formations over the following routes to the European continent:
- Even before the exile some tribes like the Danites and parts of Judah and Asher could not set foot in their possessions along the coast of Canaan and therefore took to sea in order to search for new settlements along the Mediterranean seaboard. During Homer’s time, many of the Greek warriors fighting against Troy called themselves “Danaoi”. 7 Incidentally, the founder of Troy was a certain DARDANOS, bearing resemblance to “Darda” grandson of Judah (from whom was named the region of the Dardanelles).
- With the fall of Troy, a group of Trojans fled across the Mediterranean Sea, set down in Italy and formed the nucleus for the later foundation of the City of Rome 8, and then under Brutus sailed for Britain to found the City of New Troy, the earliest name for London. 9 Likewise, many of the Danaoi migrated via Spain to Ireland, and brought science, music and arts to the ‘Emerald Isle’.
- Some went through the Caucasus and Asia Minor and up the Danube (note - DANube) to Central Europe, and then on to Gaul and Britain, forming the various Celtic tribes – Galatians and Caledonians (Gilead), Galli (Galilee), Belgae (from Bilhah), etc. – who migrated to Wales, Scotland, and Ireland.
- One large group of Scythian tribes settled for a while in the flourishing plains of Central Asia, where they greatly multiplied. Eventually they were pushed out by Turkish and Mongolian tribes, like the Huns and fled rapidly westwards around 200 AD. These became the ancestors of the “Germanic” tribes, inhabiting the North-western seaboard of Europe in Scandinavia, Holland, Denmark and North Germany. 10 From thence, originated the great migrations of the Anglo-Saxons, Danes and Normans to Britain. Those tribes now form the main bulk of the English-speaking peoples. 11
God’s Guiding Hand Through History
God’s guiding hand has been seen time and time again throughout history. A classic example of the Almighty’s deliverance of Britain / Israel was seen during Spain’s attempted invasion of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. Spain, the world superpower of the time, had long conspired against England and in 1588 sent a huge fleet to attack her. England was not considered a major sea power at that time and Philip of Spain was confident of an easy victory. Queen Elizabeth I, however, placed her confidence in God. Against all odds, the Spanish suffered a complete and humiliating defeat in the English Channel when the weather turned against them, scattering the Spanish ships and forcing them to take the perilous journey home around the coast of Scotland. Britain held a thanksgiving service to Almighty God at St. Paul's Cathedral. To commemorate the victory, a medal was struck with the words:
"He blew, and they were scattered", inscribed on it. Well says the scripture: “For he commandeth, and raiseth the stormy wind, which lifteth up the waves thereof” (PSALM 107:25). Thereby, not only was our nation’s welfare protected, but also true biblical Christianity, preserved in Britain and later to spread again throughout the world, against the unbiblical doctrine of the Papal church.
Another example of a divine light shining out into the world and changing it forever is the story of Florence Nightingale. Since the Dark Ages, the world had lived in squalor, with little regard being paid to cleanliness or hygiene. Disease claimed many a young life and a wound on the battlefield meant almost certain death from the ensuing infection. God in His mercy used this young Englishwoman, inspired by the Scriptures, to bring about a revolution in healthcare and transform the world. Florence Nightingale was ‘called by God’ to start the practice of cleanliness in hospitals. Her methods, proven on the war fields of the Crimea in 1854, were to save countless lives and spread quickly to the entire civilised world. 12
As the course of time ran on, the world was to be engulfed in a conflict, the scale of which had never been seen before - the first and second world wars. If Nazi Germany had been successful in its quest for world domination, the world would be a very different place now. However, any government that chooses to ignore God’s commandments is doomed to fail, and history records that the Israelite nations once again were the means of deliverance. Space does not permit the many examples of divine intervention and deliverance given, but Churchill himself stated: “I sometimes have a feeling… that some Guiding Hand has interfered. I have a feeling that we have a Guardian…” 13 On more than one occasion, the nation turned to the Lord in prayer, seeking divine help, and each time help was forthcoming from God, e.g. the miracle of Dunkirk. Even King George VI himself was miraculously healed of multiple scleroris by prayer.
In which other nation can the signs of a devotion to the Lord God be so clearly seen in its leaders? Consider the following quotes:
"There are more sure marks of authenticity in the Bible than in any profane history." (Sir Isaac Newton) 14
"May the great God whom I worship, grant to my country… a great and glorious Victory! And may no misconduct in anyone tarnish it! And may humanity after victory be the predominant feature in the British fleet. For myself individually I commit my life to Him who made me - and may His blessing light upon my endeavours for serving my country faithfully. To Him I resign myself and the just cause which is entrusted me to defend, Amen." (Lord Nelson's prayer before Trafalgar)
Queen Victoria was once asked what the secret of Britain’s greatness was, and she simply held up the Bible and said: "That book accounts for the supremacy of England." 15.
"I believe the Bible is the best gift God has ever given to man. All the good from the Saviour of the world is communicated to us through this book." (Abraham Lincoln) 16
“It is impossible to rightly govern the world without God and the Bible." (George Washington) 17
Spreading God’s Word
“Blessed is the nation whose God is the LORD; and the people whom he hath chosen for his own inheritance” (PSALM 33:12).
Some of the “marks” or characteristics of Israel were to be that they would spread God’s Word throughout the whole world. Which group of nations have been the primary instigators, in this area, throughout history? (See "Where are the People of Biblical Israel Today?")
Not so long ago, Britain was called “Great” and together with the United States of America, the English-speaking nations were called the “PEOPLE OF THE BOOK”. Staunch Christianity and a firm belief in the Bible as God’s Word is deeply rooted in the history and character of these nations, as we will see below.
Christian missionaries had come to the British Isles as early as 37 AD with Joseph of Arimathea, arriving in Glastonbury and converting the British king Arviragus. As early as the 9th century, King Alfred ordered the first translations of the Bible into the Anglo-Saxon tongue. During the 14th century, John Wycliffe defied the Popish priests, who tried to ban the Bible, and sent out “Lollards” (underground preachers) with parts of the English Bible hidden in their coats.
Inspired by Martin Luther, William Tyndale, one of the most prolific Bible smugglers, cried out to God when he was being burnt at the stake in Vilvoorde, near Brussels in 1536: “Oh Lord, open the King of England’s eyes!” Only a few years later, the Bible was translated and chained to the pulpit of every church in England by Royal decree of King Henry VIII – making England the only nation in the then known world to do so!
God says of His people Israel:
“Ye are my witnesses, saith the LORD, and my servant whom I have chosen ...” (ISAIAH 43:10).
With the rapid spread of the Bible, the thought of evangelising the world was re-born – though not in a “convert or die” approach, as previously seen with Islam or the Jesuit Mission in South America, but by sharing the true gospel as revealed in the Scriptures.
Various Protestant churches started their own missionary societies as early as the 18th century, from which evolved great preachers of the faith, such as William Carey (missionary to India 1761-1834), Hudson Taylor (missionary to China), and David Livingstone (explorer and missionary in Africa) - the list is almost endless. In 1620, in their search for religious freedom, the Pilgrim Fathers left England forever to set sail for their “new habitation” – America. They founded what was to become the most influential nation on Earth, established on the principles of the Word of God.
At the beginning of the 20th century, God visited His nations again through the magnificent outpouring of the Holy Spirit. Starting in a Bible school in Topeka, Kansas and a little congregation on Azusa Street, in Los Angeles, Bible students and simple believers discovered the infilling of the Holy Spirit, in the same way as it had been on the day of Pentecost, accompanied with the sign of speaking in tongues (ACTS 2:4). The news of this latter day outpouring of the Holy Spirit spread like wildfire through America and the British Empire, as well as sparking revivals in Wales in 1904 and Sweden.
“And it shall come to pass in the last days, saith God, I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh: and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams …” (ACTS 2:17).
The Bible is the best selling book in the world and has been translated into more languages than any other. The entire Bible, or portions thereof, has been translated into 2,233 languages and dialects. Since the 19th century, many Christian missionaries have gone out to all the countries of the world to take the Gospel to even the remotest areas.
“And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come” (MATTHEW 24:14).
Britain and America – “Servant Nations”
“For thou art an holy people unto the LORD thy God: the LORD thy God hath chosen thee to be a special people unto himself …” (DEUTERONOMY 7:6).
“…I will make thy seed to multiply as the stars of heaven, and will give unto thy seed all these countries; and in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed …” (GENESIS 26:4).
God chose Israel as His people and they were to be a blessing to the world, as we read in the above promise to Abraham. They are not a “superior” people, but rather an example to the world, and a “servant nation”.
The British Empire, in the early decades of the 20th century, held sway over a population of 400-500 million people (roughly a quarter of the world's population), and covered nearly 30 million square kilometres (roughly two-fifths of the world's land area).
Considering the size of Britain, it is rather remarkable that this was the world’s biggest empire! Its territories were scattered across every continent and ocean, and it was described as "the empire on which the sun never sets."
Britain fulfilled the prophecy above to Abraham and was a blessing to the world. Wherever Britain went, it kept the peace and brought an end to many tribal disputes or freed the people from tyrannical Roman Catholic rule. The Empire facilitated the spread of technology, medicine, education, commerce, language, and the Westminster system of government around much of the globe. Britain is the longest standing democracy in the world, and its civil rights have been entrenched since the Magna Carta (1215 AD) and the Bill of Rights (1689 AD). The rights and freedoms that these laws provide to the individual are based entirely on the Bible. Even in 800 AD, King Alfred the Great established the 10 Commandments as the law of the land, and it could be said that “a man’s home is his castle”.
Many malign the British Empire, yet there was much blessing to these countries during British rule. These countries received the English language, an administrative and legal framework based on the British model, and technological and economic development. And above all, the Empire facilitated the spread of the Gospel throughout the world, as Britain sent missionaries everywhere, so that all peoples of the earth may have the opportunity of salvation. (See "All Races of Mankind May be Saved")
Converting and Civilising the Heathen
NOTE: Some graphic descriptions, not suitable for younger readers, parental discretion advised.
Always to be found on the farthest frontiers of the Empire, the British and American Christians ventured forth, caring neither for life nor limb, in a bold venture to reach the heathen tribes and peoples of the world with the Word of God. From the jungles of Africa to the plains and forests of North America, from the deserts of Australia to the teeming masses in India and China – courageous men and women gave up their lives to take the Gospel and love of Jesus Christ to these peoples. Many heathen tribes lived in depravity and savagery until the missionaries came to convert them and preach to them of the righteousness of God. Take, for example, the following countries:
Australia and New Zealand
Australia agreed to unite and became a Nation in 1901, “humbly relying on the blessing of Almighty God” – as the preamble to the Constitution states. For many years immigrants to Australia were taught the ways of God by their new society. The immigrant’s ‘Oath of Allegiance’ originally meant swearing “by Almighty God that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to His Majesty King George…” Sadly, this has been gradually watered down to the weak pledge of today, with optional reference to God.
The preacher, Richard Johnson, was chosen to travel with the ‘First Fleet’ to Australia “by the most trusted evangelical leaders in England”, and he brought with him over 1,500 Bibles and other texts 19. This Godly man established the first church, and could be heard crying out to God on behalf of the convicts at night. God used the British nation to spread the Truth and the hope of salvation to the natives. Many were indeed brought to Christ, and “in the beginning of 1860 a remarkable awakening amongst the blacks began with earnest cries to God for mercy, and sincere tears of repentance, which was followed by a striking change in their lives, manner and habits.” 20
Likewise, Samuel Marsden, called the “Apostle of New Zealand”, saw that the Maoris were “wholly under the power and influence of the prince of darkness.” 21 He was flocked upon and followed for miles by Maoris anxious to hear about religion 22 and after his death reports stated that: “The country is rapidly becoming Christian…” 23
Aboriginal practices before the coming of the British, particularly “initiation” and religious ceremonies, were abhorrent. In both Australia and New Zealand there were widespread reports of cannibalism, infanticide and other practices too repugnant to describe here. 24 The intention, in mentioning these, is solely to illustrate the true nature of the original religious practices of these peoples and is not given in order to denigrate the Aboriginals, but to show what they were converted from. The reader who is able to stomach explicit descriptions thereof should refer to the book The World of the First Australians for further information. 25
Gross exaggerations are propagated in schools throughout Australia about the supposedly horrible acts the white men did to Aboriginals – the foremost being a supposed genocide to wipe out the Tasmanian Aboriginals. However, a thorough examination of the original evidence of killings in Tasmania reveals little evidence for any such event. 26 Geoffrey Blainey, whose name historically-minded Australians know as “one of Australia's most significant and popular historians” 27, declares that historians’ mistakes on this topic “beggared belief” and that “the evidence for ‘genocide’ or deliberate ‘extirpation’ appears frail or false.” 28 We encourage the reader to study Keith Windschuttle's work to see just how much the truth has been corrupted in modern interpretations of Australian history.
Contrary to what is taught today, the Christian missionaries and settlers from Britain were a great blessing and civilising force in Australia and New Zealand. (See "A Culture in Crisis" - a recent newspaper article showing the decline of Australia).
One of the more famous missionaries to India was William Carey. Born in Northamptonshire, England in 1761, Carey grew up in a poor home, and he had a heart for missionary work from an early age. In 1793 he set out for Calcutta.
In 1801, William College in Calcutta commissioned Carey as professor of Sanskrit, Bengali, and Marathi, a position he held for thirty years. Also in 1801, Mr. Ward finished printing the New Testament in Bengali and by 1809, Carey and Ward published the entire Bible in Bengali. By 1804, another mission began in Cutwa and one in Calcutta. Within the next few years some twenty new mission sites were established. 29 He also edited two important botanical works, Hortus Bengalensis (1814) and Flora Indica (2 vols., 1820, 1824). Putting his scholarly work into practice, Carey and his colleagues founded Serampore College (1818) and the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India (1820). Carey also helped to start savings banks in India, brought one of the first steam engines to India, and published India’s first periodical, The Friend of India. In recognition of Carey’s accomplishments, Brown University awarded him the Doctor of Divinity degree (1806) and the Linnaean Society of London registered him as a fellow.
Here is what William Carey had to say about India shortly after his arrival: “Amongst these idolaters no Bibles were found; no Sabbaths; no congregating for religious instruction in any form; no house for God; no God but a log of wood, or a monkey; no Saviour but the Ganges; no worship but that paid to abominable idols, and that connected with dances, songs, and unutterable impurities; … no morality, for how should a people be moral whose gods are monsters of vice; whose priests are their ringleaders in crime; whose scriptures encourage pride, impurity, falsehood, revenge, and murder; whose worship is connected with indescribable abominations, and whose heaven is a brothel? To carry to such a people the divine word, to call them together for sacred instruction, to introduce amongst them a pure and heavenly worship, and to lead them to the observance of a Sabbath on earth, as the preparative and prelude to a state of endless perfection, was surely a work worthy for a Saviour to command, and becoming a Christian people to attempt.” 30
Carey found a people wholly given over to the immorality of Hinduism. The disgusting practices of this religion included: “Suttee” - the forcible burning of widows on the funeral pyres of their dead husbands; “Thuggee” - where the English word “thug” originates – a ritualistic strangulation of strangers and travellers by a sect believing such sacrifices are accepted to the goddess Kali; “Ashwamedha” - the ritual of bestiality of the Brahmanic queen with a horse, then killing the horse mid-intercourse; and “Purushamelda” - the same as ashwamedha, but with a human instead of a horse. Uncountable cases of female infanticide and cannibalism abounded. 31 Many of these practices were outlawed when Britain ruled in India, and through the work of the missionaries Hindus were converted to the Bible. Since India received its independence from Britain, an astonishing 50 million Indian women are estimated to have been killed as infants or in the fires of Suttee! 32
The countries of USA and Canada were both founded upon Biblical principles, and the goals of many of the earliest Europeans coming to these countries included the conversion of the Native Americans. In America, the ‘Colonial Common Law’, and subsequently the ‘American Constitution’, testifies to America’s legal system being established on a Scriptural basis – namely, the Ten Commandments. 33
North of the border, Canada’s official motto,
“He shall have dominion from sea to sea”, also comes from PSALM 72:8, signifying the reign of Jesus Christ over the nation.34
The customs among Native Americans varied from tribe to tribe, but many included ceremonies like the Sun Dance, potlatch and cannibalism. The Sun Dance was observed at the solstice by many of the Plains tribes. This ceremony could involve self-torture, as a skewer of bone would be fastened through a young man’s skin and tied to the sun pole. The object was to break free from the pole, symbolizing breaking free from death. At times, Potlatch was only seen as a ceremony of giving, but sometimes included actual cannibalism. Anthropologist Dr. Leland Donald confirms: “Discussion of cannibalism is very controversial…. It usually occurred in ritual events and the eaters were believed to be temporarily infused with a supernatural spirit that required human flesh. Slaves were usually offered up as the victims. They were also sometimes sacrificed following the death of an important community leader.”
Although white Europeans are scurrilously portrayed in North American history as greedy land-grabbers, many came with the goal to share with the Natives the TRUE gospel of Jesus Christ. One example is David Brainerd, a missionary to the American Indians whose desire was "to burn out in one continual flame for God." He had a brief three-year ministry, during which hundreds of American Indians were converted. His main mission was for his hearers to accept Christ and live for Him, but he was also concerned with their well-being in general, believing that healthy communities would be more fertile ground for hearing the Gospel. This motivated him to build schools and to promote strong communities. 35 As Europeans settled the continent, bringing a new way of life, the Indians were not well-equipped to cope with the changes that were coming. In Canada, William Duncan set up the community of Metlakahtla for Indians who converted to Christianity. The shocking atrocities that he witnessed among the Indians themselves would have been enough to send a lesser man packing, however, he fought to banish cannibalism, rampant murder, superstition and witchcraft. The village that he founded for converted Indians was an example of industry, with houses, a school, church, and sawmill, all built by the people. 36
In 1795, the British occupied South Africa, which at that time was not inhabited by the black Zulus, but only by the Hottentots, Strand loopers and Khoi people who moved around the Cape. These were mostly primitive nomadic people who did nothing to develop or use the land and stole the livestock of the settlers. In contrast, the British strove to serve the people of the Cape and soon after their occupation the first missionaries from the London Missionary Society, Methodist Missionaries and Church Missionary Society, were sent. 37
As the settlers moved up the country they came into contact with the Zulus who were grain farmers and also kept large herds of cattle. Replenishing their herds was mainly done by raiding their neighbours. “Traditional Zulu religion was based on ancestor worship and on beliefs in a creator god, witches, and sorcerers.” 38 However, because of the missionaries, there are now a number of independent Zulu Christian churches that have been established.
In later years, Cecil John Rhodes developed the property of Groote Schuur where he, as Prime Minister, entertained many nationalities including Dutch and English. Rhodes was by no means a racist, and worked to bring unity amongst the people of South Africa. He also developed scholarship awards for those in the colonies to study at Oxford. On his passing away, “most of his fortune was devoted to the scholarships. As the will forbade disqualification on grounds of race, many non-white students have benefited from the scholarships.” 39
Slavery was a common occurrence among the black tribes for centuries, and sadly was also initially practiced by the various European colonists. However, by 1834, slavery was abolished under British rule, and in 1836, “Non-whites were finally accorded similar treatment to white colonists in their interaction with the public institutions of the local authorities.”
Under British governance the native people and slaves were not only civilised, but also trained so that they could eventually be part of a civilised society. Schools and hospitals were built by missionaries who wanted to serve their new converts. It is often thought that the land was taken away from the ‘mistreated’ black Zulus. However, the fact is that the land was either barren or legitimately sold to the white settlers. It was then through British rule that the true potential of the land was reached. Rhodesia / Zimbabwe was well governed by people such as Ian Smith, in stark contrast to today as farms lie in waste and the government of Robert Mugabe desolates the country.
When one looks at world history as a whole, one would have to admit that most of the major developments, inventions, civilising influences and the rescue of the world from perils of tyranny and dictatorship have stemmed from the ‘Israel nations’, to a greater or lesser extent as those nations have been based upon the Bible (see "The Downfall of American Agriculture"). Many prominent individuals, including royalty, believed that the people of Israel are primarily to be found in modern day Britain and America.
As the above examples of Australia, India, North America and Africa show, the British and American people have, on the whole, stamped out immorality and morally repugnant religious practices – and have instead converted the heathen throughout the world to the pure ways of God, civilising them and developing their countries along the way.
Of course, Britain / Israel has its share of less than glorious moments, and wrongdoing, even on the part of some individuals. The fact that God chose a people for Himself does not make them superior in any way. In fact, it is rather the opposite – they are to be an example to the world, and a servant nation. The fact that Britain fulfilled these promises given to Abraham does not make its people better, and when they became too proud then the Empire collapsed (see "Poems and Quotes").
However, God’s Word declares that:
“The LORD shall establish thee an holy people unto himself, as he hath sworn unto thee, if thou shalt keep the commandments of the LORD thy God, and walk in his ways. And all people of the earth shall see that thou art called by the name of the LORD; and they shall be afraid of thee” (DEUTERONOMY 28:9-10).
”Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession” (PSALM 2:8).
“And I will make thy seed to multiply as the stars of heaven, and will give unto thy seed all these countries; and in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed …” (GENESIS 26:4).
No nation could have achieved the ascendancy that Britain did, unless the Lord God had brought it to pass.
Great British Warriors and Statesmen
Written by: Samuel Barber, LLB Hons (Stirling, Scotland); John Fletcher, B.IT. (Canberra, Australia); Ian Mackay, P.Eng. (Chilliwack, Canada); Ryan Bates, B.C.A. (Cape Town, South Africa); Lindsay McDonough, B.Sc. (Calgary, Canada) and Thomas Baker (Coffs Harbour, Australia).
Next Section: 'These Were Christian Nations'
- 1. World of Quotes
- 2. Annals of Sennacherib (Taylor Prism) (691-689 BC), British Museum
- 3. Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III (859-824 BC), British Museum
- 4. Behistun Rock, trilingual inscription of Darius I (521-485 BC), Iran
- 5. Herodotus, The Histories (430 BC)
- 6. The Venerable Bede, A History of the English Church and People Book 1, Chapter 15 (written 773 AD).
- 7. Homer, The Iliad (8th century BC)
- 8. Virgil, Aeneis (29-19 BC)
- 9. Geoffrey of Monmouth, The History of the Kings of Britain, Book 1, Chapters 3, 16 & 17 (published 1138 AD)
- 10. Jordanus, History of the Goths (551 AD)
- 11. Yair Davidy, The Tribes, Hebron (1993)
- 12. Visit the Florence Nightingale Museum, St Thomas' Hospital, London, or their website
- 13. W. B. Grant, We Have A Guardian (Covenant Books)
- 14. Henry H. Haley, Haley's Bible Handbook (Michigan: Zondervan, 1965) pp. 18-19
- 15. National Gallery in London: Portrait of Queen Victoria, ‘The Secret of England’s Greatness’
- 16. Quotes of Abraham Lincoln
- 17. Wallbuilders
- 18. Wikipedia, the on-line encyclopaedia
- 19. Neil K Macintosh, Richard Johnson: Chaplain to the Colony of New South Wales
- 20. Ian Murray, Australian Christian Life from 1788
- 21. Professor Manning Clark, A History of Australia
- 22. S. M. Johnstone, Samuel Marsden
- 23. Rev. J. Hassall, In Old Australia: Records and Reminiscences from 1794
- 24. Basedow, H. (1935) Knights of the Boomerang... Endeavour Press, Sydney. Sievewright, C. W. (1844) Report of Aborigines from Lake Terang
- 25. R. & C. Berndt, The World of the First Australians, which Encyclopaedia Britannica describes as one of ‘the most comprehensive general references on traditional Aboriginal life’. ISBN 0855751843
- 26. Keith Windshuttle, The Fabrication of Australian History, Volume 1
- 27. Australian Broadcasting Commission, Professor Geoffrey Blainey and his social history of Australia, broadcast October 9th, 2003
- 28. Geoffrey Blainey, Native Fiction, New Criterion, April 2003
- 29. "Carey heralded the formation of the Baptist Missionary Society in 1792 with his watchword 'Expect great things; attempt great things' and his missions pamphlet An Enquiry into the Obligations of Christians to Use Means for the Conversion of the Heathens (1792). The following year, in 1793, he and his family journeyed to India to undertake Christian mission work. Over the next 41 years spent primarily in Serampore, Bengal, Carey labored to show himself approved as an evangelist, Bible translator, social reformer, educator, linguist, and botanist. 'Serampore' became synonymous with earnest spirituality, intellectual renaissance, and social improvement. Directed by Carey and colleagues William Ward and Joshua and Hannah Marshman, the Serampore mission printed the Bible in numerous Indian dialects, pioneered the education of Indian women, campaigned against caste and widow-burning, and brought numerous converts to a saving knowledge of Christ.", Bennie R. Crockett and Myron C. Noonkester
- 30. George Smith, The Life of William Carey (1909)
- 31. Professor R. C. Majumdar of the College of Indology in his book Ancient India
- 32. Sita Agarwal, Genocide of Women in Hinduism
- 33. Affidavit in Support of the Ten Commandments, by David Barton
- 34. ‘On Guard For Thee’
- 35. David Brainerd: 1718-1747
- 36. Metlakahtla and the North Pacific Mission by Eugene Stock
- 37. ‘South Africa, history of’, Encyclopaedia Britannica (2004)
- 38. ‘Zulu’, Encyclopaedia Britannica (2004)
- 39. ‘Rhodes, Cecil’, Encyclopaedia Britannica (2004)