Evolution's Bloopers and Blunders
"A young man who recently took a course in anthropology at the University of Florida told me he was very surprised that at the end of the course his professor had the integrity to tell the class that all that they had been told during the whole semester was purely speculation; that she did not have one single fact to back it up."
"O Timothy, keep that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding profane and vain babblings, and oppositions of science falsely so called: Which some professing have erred concerning the faith. Grace be with thee. Amen" (1 TIMOTHY 6:20-21).
Mark Twain, in his 'Life On the Mississippi', said, "There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjectures out of such a trifling investment of facts." I am sure that nowhere in science is that more true than in that science, so-called, of 'evolution'.
My message is entitled, "Evolution's Bloopers and Blunders" - if I may borrow a title from television and modify it somewhat. But concerning evolution, they are not simply blunders: some of them are intentional frauds. And one of the disheartening things about the advent of Darwinism is that it introduced into science an element of dishonesty which had not been seen before.
I would like to quote from the writings of Dr. W. R. Thompson, world-renowned entomologist, who for many years was director of the Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control in Ottawa, Canada. So prestigious a scientist was Dr. Thompson that in 1959 he was selected to write the foreword to the centennial edition of the publication of Darwin's 'Origin of Species'. That foreword is a broadside attack against evolution by one of the world's greatest scientists. It is worth reading. In it he says: "This situation, where men rally to the defence of a doctrine they are unable to define scientifically, much less demonstrate with scientific rigour, attempting to maintain its credit with the public by the suppression of criticism and the elimination of difficulties, is abnormal and undesirable in science." He later states, "The success of Darwinism was accompanied by a decline in scientific integrity."
Furthermore, Dr. T. N. Tahmisian, a physiologist for the Atomic Energy Commission, said: "Scientists who go about teaching that evolution is a fact of life are [great scientists?] great con men, and the story they are telling may be the greatest hoax ever."
Let us look at that story today and see if it is a scientific fact or if it is the greatest hoax ever; if, indeed, among its "bloopers and blunders" there are not numerous indications of the decline of scientific integrity and the introduction of plain old dishonesty to support a theory.
Anyone in college who has ever studied much in the way of science remembers Professor Ernst Haeckel's biogenetic law. He was one of the earliest advocates of the Recapitulation Theory, or, as it is more familiarly called: "Ontogeny recapitulates Phylogeny." This is to say that the development of the foetus within the womb of the human mother goes through all of the stages of the phylum. From one cell... then multi-celled... then fish-like with gills... then ape-like with a tail... and finally it becomes a human being and recapitulates all of the supposed stages in the suppositious evolutionary history of man.
This theory was set forth by the German professor Ernst Haeckel in the last century. Haeckel was one of the avid supporters of Darwin. However, some years later, when his sketches of the foetus were carefully considered and as more information about the foetus became known, distortions were seen which were determined to be intentional. Professor Haeckel was tried by the Jena University Court and was found guilty. He "contritely" confessed his forgeries which had been made to supposedly support the doctrine of evolution.
Furthermore, Haeckel said, "I should be utterly condemned... were it not that hundreds of the best observers and biologists lie under the same charge."
Tragically, though this Recapitulation Theory has been debunked for many years, it is still being taught in many schools. In fact, about fifteen years ago, a professor of biology at Broward Community College and Dr. Robert Strong, a guest minister invited to our church for a series of theological lectures, participated in a debate on evolution vs. creation. Dr. Strong absolutely tore this evolutionist to shreds - so much so that finally this college professor was forced to say, "I rest my whole case on the incontrovertible evidence for evolution found in embryology: 'Ontogeny recapitulates Phylogeny.'"
Little did he know that the head of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, one of the world's most prestigious embryologists, had said that all of the data about the developing foetus is now known: that embryology offers no support for the theory of evolution whatsoever. He was saddened to have to admit that. And so our biological professor based his whole support for the theory of evolution on an evidence which was zero! Still millions and millions of students for over a hundred years have been taught the Recapitulation Theory: that "Ontogeny recapitulates Phylogeny"; that the growing foetus and the embryo support evolution. A deliberate lie! Indeed, it seems that Dr. Thompson's statement that the advent of Darwinism has led to a decline in scientific integrity is urged, at least in that case.
Then, of course, there is the most famous hoax of all time: the famous Piltdown Man. In 1912, Arthur Smith-Woodward, Director of the British Museum of Natural History in London, and Charles Dawson, a medical doctor and amateur palaeontologist, discovered a mandible (jawbone) and part of a skull in a gravel pit near Piltdown, England. The jawbone, however, appeared very simian-like (ape-like) except for the fact that it did not contain the large teeth normally found in an ape jaw. Also, it was quite brown looking and obviously very, very old. The "discovery" was hailed as Eoanthropus dawsoni: the "Dawn man"; the premier "missing link". For 40 years millions of students looked at pictures of the reconstructed 'Dawn man', whose figure adorned every museum in the world. Here was the "missing link"!
Forty years later, after the fluoride test was discovered, the skull and jawbone were tested with fluoride. As a result it was determined that the skull was not 500,000 years old as reported, but was only about 2,000 years old! And the jaw was only several dozens of years old! They then examined it under a microscope and found that the teeth had been filed down carefully to resemble human teeth. The whole thing had been stained with iron salts and bicromate to make it appear to be very old. It had been planted to be found, presumably by Dr. Dawson, who became famous for Eoanthropus dawsoni - a hoax which was used to move millions of students away from a belief in special Creation. The Piltdown Man proved to be a complete fraud!
The Orgueil Fall
Another fraud is called "The Orgueil fall". A fragment of a meteorite was supposedly discovered in south-west France more than a century ago. This occurred only five weeks after Pasteur gave his great demonstration and speech which demolished forever the idea of spontaneous generation of life. The evolutionists were so panic-stricken by the fact that their idea of spontaneously generating life had been destroyed, that somebody supposedly discovered this fragment of a meteorite that contained organic material. But almost a hundred years later, on recent inspection, it was found to have been very ingeniously contrived. The hoaxer had apparently moistened the meteorite fragment until it was soft, then used some sort of glue as a bonding agent, inserted the terrestrial organic material, covered it over, heated it to resemble the effects of the earth's heat, and had pawned it off by saying that there is still hope for a natural evolution of life because it must have arrived here via meteorites! Another intentional fraud, carefully perpetrated upon our children.
There was, of course, the famous Scopes Trial. Most people do not realise it, but a most damaging piece of testimony came about when Clarence Darrow put William Jennings Bryan on the stand. Darrow, who was an atheist and an evolutionist, asked Bryan if he realised that in his home state of Nebraska there had lived a whole race of men a million years ago. Bryan said he didn't realise anything of the sort and he didn't believe it either. So Darrow brought in Dr. Henry Fairfield Osborn of the American Museum of Natural History, the most respected palaeontologist in America at the time. He testified that just three years prior, in 1922, evidence of a whole race of men had been discovered to have lived in Nebraska a million years ago. Bryan was dumbfounded.
This was published all over the world. But when scientists investigated this so-called evidence, they found that it had been discovered by a man named Harold Cooke. And so the find was properly christened, in scientific terminology, Hesperopithecus haroldcookii, meaning "Western ape-man". What did these scientists discover? They found that the "evidence" consisted of one tooth. Not teeth, or jaw, or skull - but one tooth! Sometime later, in the same area, they discovered another identical tooth. But this second tooth was connected to a jaw, which was connected to a skeleton and the skeleton belonged to a pig, or more accurately, an extinct pig or peccary! Dr. Duane Gish said that it was "neither a man-like ape, nor an ape-like man, but an extinct pig." He says, "I believe this is a case in which a scientist made a man out of a pig and a pig made a monkey out of a scientist!"
But, my friends, may I point out to you that there were drawings and reconstructions of this that appeared in textbooks in our schools and models in our museums showing Hesperopithecus haroldcookii in all of his glory, sitting around the fire with his family, with a club over his shoulder. They had constructed the whole fellow! There he was, decked out for everyone to see, and all it was was a pig's tooth! A whole race of men living a million years ago in Nebraska? In a pig's eye! - or should I say, "tooth"?
Then, of course, there is the famous Pithecanthropus erectus. Every student going to college felt that he had finally arrived when he could say "pithecanthropus"! It literally means "erect ape-man". Pithecanthropus was discovered by Eugene Dubois, a Dutchman, who went from Holland to Java for the purpose of discovering an ape-man. Now it does say something about scientific objectivity when one travels halfway around the world to find an ape-man and voila! - he finds an ape-man!
However, Dubois would not show his find to anyone else. All he would show was a plaster model that he had supposedly made from a skull. He had found a skull-cap and a femur (thigh bone). It was very obvious from the leg bone that this was human and the skull bone was very obviously simian in nature. Assuming they were from the same individual, he placed them together and called the association Pithecanthropus erectus.
But Eugene Dubois failed to tell the world certain things. He failed to tell them that the leg bone was found about 50 feet downstream from the skull bone. He also failed to tell them that at the same level as the ape-like skull of Pithecanthropus, he found two human skulls (known as Wadjak 1 and 2), with a cranial capacity of about 1550-1650 cc. (probably more than most of us have).
Dubois kept these two very modern human skulls under the floorboards of his bedroom for 26 years because he knew that if he revealed that he found these at the same level and that they were obviously contemporary, then Pithecanthropus could not possibly be the progenitor of man. Before Dubois died, he concluded that the skull belonged to a large gibbon and was not an ape-man of any sort.
We then come to another famous "discovery": the Neanderthal Man. I am sure you are familiar with Homo neanderthalensis! Back in the last century, a number of these skeletons were found in the Neander Valley near Dusseldorf in Germany. They were reconstructed by a palaeontologist by the name of Boule. They then began to decorate all of the museums and textbooks in the world! You may recall pictures of the Neanderthal men. They were shown to be stooped over, walked on the outside of their feet; had a club over their shoulder, and dragged their wives along by the hair. They were the perfect ape-men!
It was later discovered, not only that Neanderthal had rickets and osteoarthritis (which accounted for his stooped condition) but, furthermore, Boule, who had a full set of bones to work with, so misconstructed the bones as to make Neanderthal appear much like an ape. He arranged the bones in such an incredible way as to even take the big toe and turn it outward from the foot as if it were an opposable thumb like an ape; this feature presumably forced Neanderthal to walk on the outer part of his feet.
One can hardly resist the conclusion that Boule "reconstructed" these creatures to make them look like apes. Now modern scientists have obviously concluded that this was a colossal blunder. It would be the nicest thing that could be said about it. But, again, millions were deceived.
We now come to the Australopithicines or "Southern apes", as they are called. Palaeontologists now focused in on Africa where we find such famous names as Zinjanthropus, Homohabilis, Skull 1470, and "Lucy", Donald Johanson's most recent find. We are told quite assuredly that these are the forerunners of man.
Well, is it so? Of course there are a number of very serious problems. Lord Solly Zuckerman, one of England's leading anatomists, has spent fifteen years examining the Australopithicines remains. He has concluded that they are fully ape. Dr. Charles Oxnard, formerly of the University of Chicago and now at the University of Southern California, has performed many computer multi-variant analyses on these bones and concluded that Australopithicines did not walk upright, as had been maintained before, but they were, rather, long-armed, knuckle-walkers. Not pre-human at all, but simply apes!
Lord Zuckerman said that if man evolved from an ape ancestor, he did so without leaving a single trace in the fossil record. Is that the impression your children are getting in school? A young man who recently took a course in anthropology at the University of Florida told me he was very surprised that at the end of the course his professor had the integrity to tell the class that all that they had been told during the whole semester was purely speculation; that she did not have one single fact to back it up.
What Lies at the Root?
Question: Are these things being put forth by scientists or by con men? Is evolution the greatest hoax ever? If so, what is the motive of the evolutionists?
May I say that this is not just some interesting or laughable matter; it is extremely significant. It is important to go to the etiology of a matter - whether it be a disease, a movement, or a philosophy - to find what lies at its root. Evolution has been, without doubt, the most influential theory of the 20th century. It has produced some incredible results. What has it produced? It has produced Nazism. Darwin wrote a book entitled 'Origin of Species' (subtitled 'Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life'). It was but a small step for Hitler, who was a zealous evolutionist, to go from the "survival" to the "dominance" of the races.
Mussolini continually spouted the evolutionary catch words. He was a zealous evolutionist who mocked at the idea of peace as being something inimitable to evolution; that war would speed up the process of evolution, which was the highest goal in his mind. Think of the desolation of World War II. Is this a trifling matter?
Or, remember that Karl Marx was so enamoured by evolution when he read Darwin's book that he felt he had discovered a scientific foundation for Communism. Since Communism and all other atheistic concepts do not believe in a Creator, they are forced to a naturalistic, evolutionary explanation of the world. Marx felt that he had found that in Darwinism. He was so enamoured with it that he offered to dedicate his book 'Das Kapital' to Charles Darwin. Fortunately, Darwin's wife had the good sense to urge him not to accept the "honour".
Communism is today fully based upon evolution. I was reading the writings of an Asian minister who said that when the Communists took over their village, they immediately began to give all the people instruction in evolution, the basis for Communism. Not only is this prevalent in the Eastern world, but in America we have secular humanism which is based firmly upon evolution - so much so that the Humanist Association named as "Humanist of the Year", Carl Sagan, for his ten-part series on evolution. The first two points of the 'Humanist Manifesto' deal solely with evolution, stating that man is a natural product of his environment; that he was not created but that he evolved.
So we see that whether we are talking about Nazism, Fascism, Communism or Humanism, evolution is the singular pillar holding all of them up.
What else has happened in this century as a result of the theory of evolution? In our own country and around the world there is a tremendous sexual revolution. Anything goes! First, there was pornography; then adultery; then incest and homosexuality; and now we find bestiality as well. There is every kind of sexual immorality giving rise to an absolute epidemic of venereal diseases. Today there are twenty-five transmissible venereal diseases abroad in our country. What has led to this?
What Led to This?
Evolution gets rid of God and therefore it gets rid of purpose, because without God there is no purpose in the world. There is probably no term more anathema to an evolutionist than the term "teleology", meaning that everything has purpose. Though the eye may appear to have a purpose, to an evolutionist it has no purpose - it is just there by chance. And if there is no purpose, there is no meaning; if there is no meaning, then obviously anything goes! There are obviously no moral absolutes.
Aldous Huxley, leading atheist and evolutionist and author of 'Brave New World', said this: "I had motives for not wanting the world to have meaning; consequently assumed that it had none, and was able without any difficulty to find satisfying reasons for this assumption...
For myself, as, no doubt, for most of my contemporaries, the philosophy of meaninglessness was essentially an instrument of liberation. The liberation we desired was simultaneously liberation from a certain political and economic system (capitalism) and liberation from a certain system of morality. We objected to the morality because it interfered with our sexual freedom."
Another of the famous Huxleys was Sir Julian Huxley, grandson of Thomas Huxley who was known as "Darwin's Bulldog". Sir Julian was a former head of UNESCO (United Nations Educational Scientific Cultural Organisation) and probably the world's most famous evolutionary biologist. I was amazed to hear him say on a television talk show: "We all jumped at the 'Origin' (that is, the 'Origin of Species') because..." Why? What would this great scientist say? Why did they jump at the 'Origin'? We may assume that the sentence was finished by saying that it was because the scientific evidence objectively gathered was so overwhelming and compelling that we were forced to admit its credibility. But that is not what he said. Sir Julian Huxley said, "We all jumped at the 'Origin' because the idea of God interfered with our sexual morals."
Scientific fact? or great hoax? Objective scientists? or con men?
I am happy to report that never in 125 years has evolution been in such total disarray. They are in complete rout. Famous scientists around the world are awakening to the fallacy of the whole theory. They are calling it a fairy tale; a myth; stories ingeniously concocted; a hoax perpetrated upon the youth of the world.
However, the results of this hoax have been disastrous beyond the ability of mankind to compute. It is important to go to the etiologist, to the root. I for one plan to continue to lay the axe to that beanstalk upholding these monstrous theories which have plagued the 20th century. I believe that one day soon the whole structure is going to come crumbling down.
The truth is that there is a Creator who has made us and who has sent His Son to redeem us; that those who will trust in Jesus Christ, the living, risen Saviour of the world, will find forgiveness for their sins... the gift of everlasting life... the meaning for their existence... a purpose for living... and an ultimate and eternal home in Paradise.
by D. James Kennedy, Ph.D.
Source: 'Bible Science Newsletter', March 1987