Hebrew and Greek Words Translated as 'Wine'

 

Yayin - Generic term for the "juice of the grape", either fermented or unfermented; meaning "what is pressed out".
Tirosh - "Freshly expressed grape-juice in its natural condition". Translated in the Authorized Version (A.V.) as "new wine" eleven times; "wine" twenty-six times; "sweet wine" once; and "vintage" three times. Always translated as "new wine" in the Revised Version (R.V.). Not used for fermented wine.
Shekar - Hebrew: "What satiates, intoxicates". A saccharine drink rendered as "strong drink" (21x), and "strong wine" (1x). Described as a liquor made from dates, barley, etc. and always as a curse. In the Greek Old Testament (LXX) rendered as 'sikera', or sometimes as 'methusma' or 'methé'; and once as 'oinos'. Occurs only once in the New Testament (N.T.).
Asis - "Anything pressed on or trodden out". Rendered as "juice" (1x), "new wine" (2x), and "sweet wine" (2x). Not necessarily unfermented; not to be confused with "tirosh" (ISAIAH 49:26; JOEL 1:5; JOEL 3:18; AMOS 9:13).
Ashishah - Denotes "a cake of raisins". Rendered wrongly in A.V. as "flagons", but corrected in the Revised Versions.
Chemer - "A thick, sticky syrup; foaming juice". Indicates all kinds of wine (ISAIAH 27:2).
Chamar - The Aramaic form, used in EZRA 6:9 and DANIEL 5:1-4, literally means "foaming" and denotes fermented wine.
Sobe - "Anything sucked in or up". Probably indicated inspissated or boiled wines. Non-intoxicating beverage. 'Sobe-yayin' - lit. "soakers of wine".
Shemer - "What is preserved; the sediment". Rendered as "dregs", "lees", or "wine in the lees" (See ISAIAH 25:6).
Nasek - "Drink offering". Lit. "that which is poured out; a libation".
Mimsak - "Anything mixed". Rendered "drink-offering", or "mixed wine" (ISAIAH 65:11).
Yeqeb - Originally a vat or trough; then used as a wine-press or wine-vat. Occurs 16 times (e.g. NUMBERS 18:27).
Enab - Ripe or round grape, or grape-cake (HOSEA 3:1).
Chomets - Vinegar, sour or unripe grapes (Greek: 'oxos').
Misteh - General term for beverage, especially wine (EZRA 3:7; DANIEL 1:10).
Oinos - Generic term (used in the LXX) for all kinds of wine except 'shekar'. Also occurs in N.T. (Greek) 32 times.
Sikera - Greek: "Strong drink" (See 'shekar').
Gleukos - Used only once (ACTS 2:13), as "new wine"; corresponds to fermented.
Methuo - To be "drunk", or "filled to the full" (Greek).

Inferences to Wines as Used in Scripture

Favourable to use: Yayin:- GENESIS 49:11, GENESIS 49:12; PROVERBS 9:2, PROVERBS 9:5; SONG OF SOLOMON 7:9; ISAIAH 55:1; HOSEA 14:7; ZECHARIAH 10:7. Chemer:- ISAIAH 27:2 (some manuscripts (M.S.S.) use 'Chemed', meaning pleasant). Tirosh:- JOEL 2:19. Oinos:- REVELATION 6:6.

Unfavourable to use or character: Yayin:- DEUTERONOMY 32:33; PSALM 60:3; PSALM 75:3; PSALM 78:65: PROVERBS 4:17; ISAIAH 29:9; ISAIAH 51:21; ZECHARIAH 9:15. Shekar:- ISAIAH 29:9. Asis:- ISAIAH 49:26; JEREMIAH 48:11; ZEPHANIAH 1:12. Shemer:- JEREMIAH 48:12; ZEPHANIAH 1:12. Oinos:- REVELATION 14:8; REVELATION 14:10; REVELATION 16:19REVELATION 17:2; REVELATION 18:3; REVELATION 19:15.

Specifically as a blessing: Yayin:- PSALM 104:15; AMOS 9:14. Asis:- JOEL 3:18; AMOS 9:13. Chemer:- DEUTERONOMY 32:14. Shemer:- ISAIAH 25:6. Tirosh:- GENESIS 27:28; NUMBERS 18:12; DEUTERONOMY 7:13; DEUTERONOMY 11:14; PROVERBS 3:10; ISAIAH 65:8; JEREMIAH 31:12; HOSEA 2:8-9; JOEL 2:19; ZECHARIAH 9:17.

Definitely bad: Yayin:- LEVITICUS 10:9; PROVERBS 20:1. Shekar:- PROVERBS 20:1.

Associated with food: Yayin:- GENESIS 14:18; GENESIS 27:25; JUDGES 19:19; 1 SAMUEL 10:3; 1 SAMUEL 16:20; 1 SAMUEL 25:18; 2 SAMUEL 16:1-2; 1 CHRONICLES 12:40; 2 CHRONICLES 2:10; 2 CHRONICLES 2:15; 2 CHRONICLES 11:11; NEHEMIAH 5:15; NEHEMIAH 13:15; JOB 1:13, JOB 1:18; ECCLESIASTES 9:7; ISAIAH 22:13; JEREMIAH 40:10, JEREMIAH 40:12; DANIEL 1:5, DANIEL 1:8, DANIEL 1:16; DANIEL 10:3. Yeqev:- DEUTERONOMY 16:13; DEUTERONOMY 15:14; NUMBERS 18:27, NUMBERS 18:30. Tirosh:- GENESIS 27:28, GENESIS 27:37; NUMBERS 18:12; DEUTERONOMY 7:13; DEUTERONOMY 11:14; DEUTERONOMY 12:17; DEUTERONOMY 14:23; DEUTERONOMY 18:4; DEUTERONOMY 28:51; DEUTERONOMY 33:28; 2 KINGS 18:32; 2 CHRONICLES 31:5; 2 CHRONICLES 32:28; NEHEMIAH 5:11; NEHEMIAH 10:37, NEHEMIAH 10:39; NEHEMIAH 13:5, NEHEMIAH 13:12; PSALM 4:7; ISAIAH 36:17; ISAIAH 62:8; JEREMIAH 31:12; HOSEA 2:8-9; HOSEA 2:22; HOSEA 7:14; JOEL 2:19, JOEL 2:24; ZECHARIAH 9:17; MICAH 6:15; HAGGAI 1:11; JOEL 1:10.

Consequences bad: Yayin:- GENESIS 19:32-35; 1 SAMUEL 1:14-15; 1 SAMUEL 25:37; 2 SAMUEL 13:28; ESTHER 1:7, ESTHER 1:10; PROVERBS 23:30; PROVERBS 31:4, PROVERBS 31:6; ISAIAH 5:11-12; ISAIAH 5:22. Oinos:- 1 PETER 4:3.

Exhortation to drink: Yayin:- SONG OF SOLOMON 5:1. Shekar:- SONG OF SOLOMON 5:1 (LXX translates here as 'methuo'). Oinos:- 1 TIMOTHY 5:23.

Wine forbidden: Yayin:- PROVERBS 20:1; PROVERBS 23:31; NUMBERS 6:3-4; JUDGES 13:4, JUDGES 13:7, JUDGES 13:14. Shekar:- NUMBERS 6:3; JUDGES 13:4; JUDGES 13:7; LUKE 1:15 (sikera). Oinos:- 1 TIMOTHY 3:3; EPHESIANS 5:18.

Forbidden to Priests: Yayin:- LEVITICUS 10:9; JEREMIAH 35:6, JEREMIAH 35:8, JEREMIAH 35:14; PROVERBS 23:20; EZEKIEL 44:21. Shekar:- LEVITICUS 10:9. Oinos:- TITUS 1:7.

Inferences of different kinds of wine: Be-kahl yayin:- NEHEMIAH 5:18; SONG OF SOLOMON 8:2.

Used for a drink-offering: Yayin:- EXODUS 29:40; LEVITICUS 23:13; NUMBERS 15:5, NUMBERS 15:7, NUMBERS 15:10; NUMBERS 28:14; DEUTERONOMY 32:38; 1 SAMUEL 1:24; HOSEA 9:4. Shekar:- NUMBERS 28:7. Chamar:- EZRA 6:9; EZRA 7:22.

Unspecified nature: Yayin:- DEUTERONOMY 29:6; JOSHUA 9:4, JOSHUA 9:13; 1 CHRONICLES 27:27; NEHEMIAH 2:1; ESTHER 5:6; ESTHER 7:2, ESTHER 7:7-8; JOB 32:19; PROVERBS 21:17; ECCLESIASTES 2:3; ECCLESIASTES 10:19; SONG OF SOLOMON 1:2, SONG OF SOLOMON 1:4; SONG OF SOLOMON 4:10; ISAIAH 56:12; JEREMIAH 35:2, JEREMIAH 35:5; EZEKIEL 27:18; AMOS 2:8, AMOS 2:12; AMOS 6:6; HOSEA 4:11; MICAH 2:11; HAGGAI 2:12. Shekar:- DEUTERONOMY 29:6; ISAIAH 56:12; MICAH 2:11. Yeqeb - NUMBERS 18:27; NUMBERS 18:30; DEUTERONOMY 15:14; JUDGES 7:25; 2 KINGS 6:27; JOB 24:11; ISAIAH 5:2; JEREMIAH 48:33; HOSEA 9:2; ZECHARIAH 14:10. Ashishah:- HOSEA 3:1. Asis:- ISAIAH 49:26. Sobe:- HOSEA 4:18; ISAIAH 1:22. Tirosh:- HOSEA 4:11. Oinos:- MATTHEW 9:17; MARK 2:22; LUKE 5:37-38; LUKE 7:33; LUKE 10:34; JOHN 2:3, JOHN 2:9-10; JOHN 4:46; ROMANS 14:21; 1 TIMOTHY 5:23.

by Edith A. Kerr (B.A., B.D.)

Source: 'Alcohol and the Scriptures', Temperance Committee of the Presbyterian Church of Victoria, 1966